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26  /*
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32   * Copyright (c) 2008-2012, Stephen Colebourne & Michael Nascimento Santos
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62  package java.time.format;
63  
64  import static java.time.temporal.ChronoField.DAY_OF_MONTH;
65  import static java.time.temporal.ChronoField.HOUR_OF_DAY;
66  import static java.time.temporal.ChronoField.INSTANT_SECONDS;
67  import static java.time.temporal.ChronoField.MINUTE_OF_HOUR;
68  import static java.time.temporal.ChronoField.MONTH_OF_YEAR;
69  import static java.time.temporal.ChronoField.NANO_OF_SECOND;
70  import static java.time.temporal.ChronoField.OFFSET_SECONDS;
71  import static java.time.temporal.ChronoField.SECOND_OF_MINUTE;
72  import static java.time.temporal.ChronoField.YEAR;
73  
74  import java.lang.ref.SoftReference;
75  import java.math.BigDecimal;
76  import java.math.BigInteger;
77  import java.math.RoundingMode;
78  import java.text.ParsePosition;
79  import java.time.DateTimeException;
80  import java.time.Instant;
81  import java.time.LocalDate;
82  import java.time.LocalDateTime;
83  import java.time.ZoneId;
84  import java.time.ZoneOffset;
85  import java.time.chrono.ChronoLocalDate;
86  import java.time.chrono.Chronology;
87  import java.time.chrono.IsoChronology;
88  import java.time.format.DateTimeTextProvider.LocaleStore;
89  import java.time.temporal.ChronoField;
90  import java.time.temporal.IsoFields;
91  import java.time.temporal.TemporalAccessor;
92  import java.time.temporal.TemporalField;
93  import java.time.temporal.TemporalQueries;
94  import java.time.temporal.TemporalQuery;
95  import java.time.temporal.ValueRange;
96  import java.time.temporal.WeekFields;
97  import java.time.zone.ZoneRulesProvider;
98  import java.util.AbstractMap.SimpleImmutableEntry;
99  import java.util.ArrayList;
100 import java.util.Arrays;
101 import java.util.Collections;
102 import java.util.Comparator;
103 import java.util.HashMap;
104 import java.util.HashSet;
105 import java.util.Iterator;
106 import java.util.LinkedHashMap;
107 import java.util.List;
108 import java.util.Locale;
109 import java.util.Map;
110 import java.util.Map.Entry;
111 import java.util.Objects;
112 import java.util.Set;
113 import java.util.TimeZone;
114 import java.util.concurrent.ConcurrentHashMap;
115 import java.util.concurrent.ConcurrentMap;
116 
117 import sun.util.locale.provider.LocaleProviderAdapter;
118 import sun.util.locale.provider.LocaleResources;
119 import sun.util.locale.provider.TimeZoneNameUtility;
120 
121 /**
122  * Builder to create date-time formatters.
123  * <p>
124  * This allows a {@code DateTimeFormatter} to be created.
125  * All date-time formatters are created ultimately using this builder.
126  * <p>
127  * The basic elements of date-time can all be added:
128  * <ul>
129  * <li>Value - a numeric value</li>
130  * <li>Fraction - a fractional value including the decimal place. Always use this when
131  * outputting fractions to ensure that the fraction is parsed correctly</li>
132  * <li>Text - the textual equivalent for the value</li>
133  * <li>OffsetId/Offset - the {@linkplain ZoneOffset zone offset}</li>
134  * <li>ZoneId - the {@linkplain ZoneId time-zone} id</li>
135  * <li>ZoneText - the name of the time-zone</li>
136  * <li>ChronologyId - the {@linkplain Chronology chronology} id</li>
137  * <li>ChronologyText - the name of the chronology</li>
138  * <li>Literal - a text literal</li>
139  * <li>Nested and Optional - formats can be nested or made optional</li>
140  * <li>Other - the printer and parser interfaces can be used to add user supplied formatting</li>
141  * </ul>
142  * In addition, any of the elements may be decorated by padding, either with spaces or any other character.
143  * <p>
144  * Finally, a shorthand pattern, mostly compatible with {@code java.text.SimpleDateFormat SimpleDateFormat}
145  * can be used, see {@link #appendPattern(String)}.
146  * In practice, this simply parses the pattern and calls other methods on the builder.
147  *
148  * @implSpec
149  * This class is a mutable builder intended for use from a single thread.
150  *
151  * @since 1.8
152  */
153 public final class DateTimeFormatterBuilder {
154 
155     /**
156      * Query for a time-zone that is region-only.
157      */
158     private static final TemporalQuery<ZoneId> QUERY_REGION_ONLY = (temporal) -> {
159         ZoneId zone = temporal.query(TemporalQueries.zoneId());
160         return (zone != null && zone instanceof ZoneOffset == false ? zone : null);
161     };
162 
163     /**
164      * The currently active builder, used by the outermost builder.
165      */
166     private DateTimeFormatterBuilder active = this;
167     /**
168      * The parent builder, null for the outermost builder.
169      */
170     private final DateTimeFormatterBuilder parent;
171     /**
172      * The list of printers that will be used.
173      */
174     private final List<DateTimePrinterParser> printerParsers = new ArrayList<>();
175     /**
176      * Whether this builder produces an optional formatter.
177      */
178     private final boolean optional;
179     /**
180      * The width to pad the next field to.
181      */
182     private int padNextWidth;
183     /**
184      * The character to pad the next field with.
185      */
186     private char padNextChar;
187     /**
188      * The index of the last variable width value parser.
189      */
190     private int valueParserIndex = -1;
191 
192     /**
193      * Gets the formatting pattern for date and time styles for a locale and chronology.
194      * The locale and chronology are used to lookup the locale specific format
195      * for the requested dateStyle and/or timeStyle.
196      *
197      * @param dateStyle  the FormatStyle for the date
198      * @param timeStyle  the FormatStyle for the time
199      * @param chrono  the Chronology, non-null
200      * @param locale  the locale, non-null
201      * @return the locale and Chronology specific formatting pattern
202      * @throws IllegalArgumentException if both dateStyle and timeStyle are null
203      */
204     public static String getLocalizedDateTimePattern(FormatStyle dateStyle, FormatStyle timeStyle,
205             Chronology chrono, Locale locale) {
206         Objects.requireNonNull(locale, "locale");
207         Objects.requireNonNull(chrono, "chrono");
208         if (dateStyle == null && timeStyle == null) {
209             throw new IllegalArgumentException("Either dateStyle or timeStyle must be non-null");
210         }
211         LocaleResources lr = LocaleProviderAdapter.getResourceBundleBased().getLocaleResources(locale);
212         String pattern = lr.getJavaTimeDateTimePattern(
213                 convertStyle(timeStyle), convertStyle(dateStyle), chrono.getCalendarType());
214         return pattern;
215     }
216 
217     /**
218      * Converts the given FormatStyle to the java.text.DateFormat style.
219      *
220      * @param style  the FormatStyle style
221      * @return the int style, or -1 if style is null, indicating un-required
222      */
223     private static int convertStyle(FormatStyle style) {
224         if (style == null) {
225             return -1;
226         }
227         return style.ordinal();  // indices happen to align
228     }
229 
230     /**
231      * Constructs a new instance of the builder.
232      */
233     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder() {
234         super();
235         parent = null;
236         optional = false;
237     }
238 
239     /**
240      * Constructs a new instance of the builder.
241      *
242      * @param parent  the parent builder, not null
243      * @param optional  whether the formatter is optional, not null
244      */
245     private DateTimeFormatterBuilder(DateTimeFormatterBuilder parent, boolean optional) {
246         super();
247         this.parent = parent;
248         this.optional = optional;
249     }
250 
251     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
252     /**
253      * Changes the parse style to be case sensitive for the remainder of the formatter.
254      * <p>
255      * Parsing can be case sensitive or insensitive - by default it is case sensitive.
256      * This method allows the case sensitivity setting of parsing to be changed.
257      * <p>
258      * Calling this method changes the state of the builder such that all
259      * subsequent builder method calls will parse text in case sensitive mode.
260      * See {@link #parseCaseInsensitive} for the opposite setting.
261      * The parse case sensitive/insensitive methods may be called at any point
262      * in the builder, thus the parser can swap between case parsing modes
263      * multiple times during the parse.
264      * <p>
265      * Since the default is case sensitive, this method should only be used after
266      * a previous call to {@code #parseCaseInsensitive}.
267      *
268      * @return this, for chaining, not null
269      */
270     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder parseCaseSensitive() {
271         appendInternal(SettingsParser.SENSITIVE);
272         return this;
273     }
274 
275     /**
276      * Changes the parse style to be case insensitive for the remainder of the formatter.
277      * <p>
278      * Parsing can be case sensitive or insensitive - by default it is case sensitive.
279      * This method allows the case sensitivity setting of parsing to be changed.
280      * <p>
281      * Calling this method changes the state of the builder such that all
282      * subsequent builder method calls will parse text in case insensitive mode.
283      * See {@link #parseCaseSensitive()} for the opposite setting.
284      * The parse case sensitive/insensitive methods may be called at any point
285      * in the builder, thus the parser can swap between case parsing modes
286      * multiple times during the parse.
287      *
288      * @return this, for chaining, not null
289      */
290     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder parseCaseInsensitive() {
291         appendInternal(SettingsParser.INSENSITIVE);
292         return this;
293     }
294 
295     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
296     /**
297      * Changes the parse style to be strict for the remainder of the formatter.
298      * <p>
299      * Parsing can be strict or lenient - by default its strict.
300      * This controls the degree of flexibility in matching the text and sign styles.
301      * <p>
302      * When used, this method changes the parsing to be strict from this point onwards.
303      * As strict is the default, this is normally only needed after calling {@link #parseLenient()}.
304      * The change will remain in force until the end of the formatter that is eventually
305      * constructed or until {@code parseLenient} is called.
306      *
307      * @return this, for chaining, not null
308      */
309     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder parseStrict() {
310         appendInternal(SettingsParser.STRICT);
311         return this;
312     }
313 
314     /**
315      * Changes the parse style to be lenient for the remainder of the formatter.
316      * Note that case sensitivity is set separately to this method.
317      * <p>
318      * Parsing can be strict or lenient - by default its strict.
319      * This controls the degree of flexibility in matching the text and sign styles.
320      * Applications calling this method should typically also call {@link #parseCaseInsensitive()}.
321      * <p>
322      * When used, this method changes the parsing to be lenient from this point onwards.
323      * The change will remain in force until the end of the formatter that is eventually
324      * constructed or until {@code parseStrict} is called.
325      *
326      * @return this, for chaining, not null
327      */
328     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder parseLenient() {
329         appendInternal(SettingsParser.LENIENT);
330         return this;
331     }
332 
333     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
334     /**
335      * Appends a default value for a field to the formatter for use in parsing.
336      * <p>
337      * This appends an instruction to the builder to inject a default value
338      * into the parsed result. This is especially useful in conjunction with
339      * optional parts of the formatter.
340      * <p>
341      * For example, consider a formatter that parses the year, followed by
342      * an optional month, with a further optional day-of-month. Using such a
343      * formatter would require the calling code to check whether a full date,
344      * year-month or just a year had been parsed. This method can be used to
345      * default the month and day-of-month to a sensible value, such as the
346      * first of the month, allowing the calling code to always get a date.
347      * <p>
348      * During formatting, this method has no effect.
349      * <p>
350      * During parsing, the current state of the parse is inspected.
351      * If the specified field has no associated value, because it has not been
352      * parsed successfully at that point, then the specified value is injected
353      * into the parse result. Injection is immediate, thus the field-value pair
354      * will be visible to any subsequent elements in the formatter.
355      * As such, this method is normally called at the end of the builder.
356      *
357      * @param field  the field to default the value of, not null
358      * @param value  the value to default the field to
359      * @return this, for chaining, not null
360      */
361     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder parseDefaulting(TemporalField field, long value) {
362         Objects.requireNonNull(field, "field");
363         appendInternal(new DefaultValueParser(field, value));
364         return this;
365     }
366 
367     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
368     /**
369      * Appends the value of a date-time field to the formatter using a normal
370      * output style.
371      * <p>
372      * The value of the field will be output during a format.
373      * If the value cannot be obtained then an exception will be thrown.
374      * <p>
375      * The value will be printed as per the normal format of an integer value.
376      * Only negative numbers will be signed. No padding will be added.
377      * <p>
378      * The parser for a variable width value such as this normally behaves greedily,
379      * requiring one digit, but accepting as many digits as possible.
380      * This behavior can be affected by 'adjacent value parsing'.
381      * See {@link #appendValue(java.time.temporal.TemporalField, int)} for full details.
382      *
383      * @param field  the field to append, not null
384      * @return this, for chaining, not null
385      */
386     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendValue(TemporalField field) {
387         Objects.requireNonNull(field, "field");
388         appendValue(new NumberPrinterParser(field, 1, 19, SignStyle.NORMAL));
389         return this;
390     }
391 
392     /**
393      * Appends the value of a date-time field to the formatter using a fixed
394      * width, zero-padded approach.
395      * <p>
396      * The value of the field will be output during a format.
397      * If the value cannot be obtained then an exception will be thrown.
398      * <p>
399      * The value will be zero-padded on the left. If the size of the value
400      * means that it cannot be printed within the width then an exception is thrown.
401      * If the value of the field is negative then an exception is thrown during formatting.
402      * <p>
403      * This method supports a special technique of parsing known as 'adjacent value parsing'.
404      * This technique solves the problem where a value, variable or fixed width, is followed by one or more
405      * fixed length values. The standard parser is greedy, and thus it would normally
406      * steal the digits that are needed by the fixed width value parsers that follow the
407      * variable width one.
408      * <p>
409      * No action is required to initiate 'adjacent value parsing'.
410      * When a call to {@code appendValue} is made, the builder
411      * enters adjacent value parsing setup mode. If the immediately subsequent method
412      * call or calls on the same builder are for a fixed width value, then the parser will reserve
413      * space so that the fixed width values can be parsed.
414      * <p>
415      * For example, consider {@code builder.appendValue(YEAR).appendValue(MONTH_OF_YEAR, 2);}
416      * The year is a variable width parse of between 1 and 19 digits.
417      * The month is a fixed width parse of 2 digits.
418      * Because these were appended to the same builder immediately after one another,
419      * the year parser will reserve two digits for the month to parse.
420      * Thus, the text '201106' will correctly parse to a year of 2011 and a month of 6.
421      * Without adjacent value parsing, the year would greedily parse all six digits and leave
422      * nothing for the month.
423      * <p>
424      * Adjacent value parsing applies to each set of fixed width not-negative values in the parser
425      * that immediately follow any kind of value, variable or fixed width.
426      * Calling any other append method will end the setup of adjacent value parsing.
427      * Thus, in the unlikely event that you need to avoid adjacent value parsing behavior,
428      * simply add the {@code appendValue} to another {@code DateTimeFormatterBuilder}
429      * and add that to this builder.
430      * <p>
431      * If adjacent parsing is active, then parsing must match exactly the specified
432      * number of digits in both strict and lenient modes.
433      * In addition, no positive or negative sign is permitted.
434      *
435      * @param field  the field to append, not null
436      * @param width  the width of the printed field, from 1 to 19
437      * @return this, for chaining, not null
438      * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the width is invalid
439      */
440     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendValue(TemporalField field, int width) {
441         Objects.requireNonNull(field, "field");
442         if (width < 1 || width > 19) {
443             throw new IllegalArgumentException("The width must be from 1 to 19 inclusive but was " + width);
444         }
445         NumberPrinterParser pp = new NumberPrinterParser(field, width, width, SignStyle.NOT_NEGATIVE);
446         appendValue(pp);
447         return this;
448     }
449 
450     /**
451      * Appends the value of a date-time field to the formatter providing full
452      * control over formatting.
453      * <p>
454      * The value of the field will be output during a format.
455      * If the value cannot be obtained then an exception will be thrown.
456      * <p>
457      * This method provides full control of the numeric formatting, including
458      * zero-padding and the positive/negative sign.
459      * <p>
460      * The parser for a variable width value such as this normally behaves greedily,
461      * accepting as many digits as possible.
462      * This behavior can be affected by 'adjacent value parsing'.
463      * See {@link #appendValue(java.time.temporal.TemporalField, int)} for full details.
464      * <p>
465      * In strict parsing mode, the minimum number of parsed digits is {@code minWidth}
466      * and the maximum is {@code maxWidth}.
467      * In lenient parsing mode, the minimum number of parsed digits is one
468      * and the maximum is 19 (except as limited by adjacent value parsing).
469      * <p>
470      * If this method is invoked with equal minimum and maximum widths and a sign style of
471      * {@code NOT_NEGATIVE} then it delegates to {@code appendValue(TemporalField,int)}.
472      * In this scenario, the formatting and parsing behavior described there occur.
473      *
474      * @param field  the field to append, not null
475      * @param minWidth  the minimum field width of the printed field, from 1 to 19
476      * @param maxWidth  the maximum field width of the printed field, from 1 to 19
477      * @param signStyle  the positive/negative output style, not null
478      * @return this, for chaining, not null
479      * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the widths are invalid
480      */
481     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendValue(
482             TemporalField field, int minWidth, int maxWidth, SignStyle signStyle) {
483         if (minWidth == maxWidth && signStyle == SignStyle.NOT_NEGATIVE) {
484             return appendValue(field, maxWidth);
485         }
486         Objects.requireNonNull(field, "field");
487         Objects.requireNonNull(signStyle, "signStyle");
488         if (minWidth < 1 || minWidth > 19) {
489             throw new IllegalArgumentException("The minimum width must be from 1 to 19 inclusive but was " + minWidth);
490         }
491         if (maxWidth < 1 || maxWidth > 19) {
492             throw new IllegalArgumentException("The maximum width must be from 1 to 19 inclusive but was " + maxWidth);
493         }
494         if (maxWidth < minWidth) {
495             throw new IllegalArgumentException("The maximum width must exceed or equal the minimum width but " +
496                     maxWidth + " < " + minWidth);
497         }
498         NumberPrinterParser pp = new NumberPrinterParser(field, minWidth, maxWidth, signStyle);
499         appendValue(pp);
500         return this;
501     }
502 
503     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
504     /**
505      * Appends the reduced value of a date-time field to the formatter.
506      * <p>
507      * Since fields such as year vary by chronology, it is recommended to use the
508      * {@link #appendValueReduced(TemporalField, int, int, ChronoLocalDate)} date}
509      * variant of this method in most cases. This variant is suitable for
510      * simple fields or working with only the ISO chronology.
511      * <p>
512      * For formatting, the {@code width} and {@code maxWidth} are used to
513      * determine the number of characters to format.
514      * If they are equal then the format is fixed width.
515      * If the value of the field is within the range of the {@code baseValue} using
516      * {@code width} characters then the reduced value is formatted otherwise the value is
517      * truncated to fit {@code maxWidth}.
518      * The rightmost characters are output to match the width, left padding with zero.
519      * <p>
520      * For strict parsing, the number of characters allowed by {@code width} to {@code maxWidth} are parsed.
521      * For lenient parsing, the number of characters must be at least 1 and less than 10.
522      * If the number of digits parsed is equal to {@code width} and the value is positive,
523      * the value of the field is computed to be the first number greater than
524      * or equal to the {@code baseValue} with the same least significant characters,
525      * otherwise the value parsed is the field value.
526      * This allows a reduced value to be entered for values in range of the baseValue
527      * and width and absolute values can be entered for values outside the range.
528      * <p>
529      * For example, a base value of {@code 1980} and a width of {@code 2} will have
530      * valid values from {@code 1980} to {@code 2079}.
531      * During parsing, the text {@code "12"} will result in the value {@code 2012} as that
532      * is the value within the range where the last two characters are "12".
533      * By contrast, parsing the text {@code "1915"} will result in the value {@code 1915}.
534      *
535      * @param field  the field to append, not null
536      * @param width  the field width of the printed and parsed field, from 1 to 10
537      * @param maxWidth  the maximum field width of the printed field, from 1 to 10
538      * @param baseValue  the base value of the range of valid values
539      * @return this, for chaining, not null
540      * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the width or base value is invalid
541      */
542     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendValueReduced(TemporalField field,
543             int width, int maxWidth, int baseValue) {
544         Objects.requireNonNull(field, "field");
545         ReducedPrinterParser pp = new ReducedPrinterParser(field, width, maxWidth, baseValue, null);
546         appendValue(pp);
547         return this;
548     }
549 
550     /**
551      * Appends the reduced value of a date-time field to the formatter.
552      * <p>
553      * This is typically used for formatting and parsing a two digit year.
554      * <p>
555      * The base date is used to calculate the full value during parsing.
556      * For example, if the base date is 1950-01-01 then parsed values for
557      * a two digit year parse will be in the range 1950-01-01 to 2049-12-31.
558      * Only the year would be extracted from the date, thus a base date of
559      * 1950-08-25 would also parse to the range 1950-01-01 to 2049-12-31.
560      * This behavior is necessary to support fields such as week-based-year
561      * or other calendar systems where the parsed value does not align with
562      * standard ISO years.
563      * <p>
564      * The exact behavior is as follows. Parse the full set of fields and
565      * determine the effective chronology using the last chronology if
566      * it appears more than once. Then convert the base date to the
567      * effective chronology. Then extract the specified field from the
568      * chronology-specific base date and use it to determine the
569      * {@code baseValue} used below.
570      * <p>
571      * For formatting, the {@code width} and {@code maxWidth} are used to
572      * determine the number of characters to format.
573      * If they are equal then the format is fixed width.
574      * If the value of the field is within the range of the {@code baseValue} using
575      * {@code width} characters then the reduced value is formatted otherwise the value is
576      * truncated to fit {@code maxWidth}.
577      * The rightmost characters are output to match the width, left padding with zero.
578      * <p>
579      * For strict parsing, the number of characters allowed by {@code width} to {@code maxWidth} are parsed.
580      * For lenient parsing, the number of characters must be at least 1 and less than 10.
581      * If the number of digits parsed is equal to {@code width} and the value is positive,
582      * the value of the field is computed to be the first number greater than
583      * or equal to the {@code baseValue} with the same least significant characters,
584      * otherwise the value parsed is the field value.
585      * This allows a reduced value to be entered for values in range of the baseValue
586      * and width and absolute values can be entered for values outside the range.
587      * <p>
588      * For example, a base value of {@code 1980} and a width of {@code 2} will have
589      * valid values from {@code 1980} to {@code 2079}.
590      * During parsing, the text {@code "12"} will result in the value {@code 2012} as that
591      * is the value within the range where the last two characters are "12".
592      * By contrast, parsing the text {@code "1915"} will result in the value {@code 1915}.
593      *
594      * @param field  the field to append, not null
595      * @param width  the field width of the printed and parsed field, from 1 to 10
596      * @param maxWidth  the maximum field width of the printed field, from 1 to 10
597      * @param baseDate  the base date used to calculate the base value for the range
598      *  of valid values in the parsed chronology, not null
599      * @return this, for chaining, not null
600      * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the width or base value is invalid
601      */
602     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendValueReduced(
603             TemporalField field, int width, int maxWidth, ChronoLocalDate baseDate) {
604         Objects.requireNonNull(field, "field");
605         Objects.requireNonNull(baseDate, "baseDate");
606         ReducedPrinterParser pp = new ReducedPrinterParser(field, width, maxWidth, 0, baseDate);
607         appendValue(pp);
608         return this;
609     }
610 
611     /**
612      * Appends a fixed or variable width printer-parser handling adjacent value mode.
613      * If a PrinterParser is not active then the new PrinterParser becomes
614      * the active PrinterParser.
615      * Otherwise, the active PrinterParser is modified depending on the new PrinterParser.
616      * If the new PrinterParser is fixed width and has sign style {@code NOT_NEGATIVE}
617      * then its width is added to the active PP and
618      * the new PrinterParser is forced to be fixed width.
619      * If the new PrinterParser is variable width, the active PrinterParser is changed
620      * to be fixed width and the new PrinterParser becomes the active PP.
621      *
622      * @param pp  the printer-parser, not null
623      * @return this, for chaining, not null
624      */
625     private DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendValue(NumberPrinterParser pp) {
626         if (active.valueParserIndex >= 0) {
627             final int activeValueParser = active.valueParserIndex;
628 
629             // adjacent parsing mode, update setting in previous parsers
630             NumberPrinterParser basePP = (NumberPrinterParser) active.printerParsers.get(activeValueParser);
631             if (pp.minWidth == pp.maxWidth && pp.signStyle == SignStyle.NOT_NEGATIVE) {
632                 // Append the width to the subsequentWidth of the active parser
633                 basePP = basePP.withSubsequentWidth(pp.maxWidth);
634                 // Append the new parser as a fixed width
635                 appendInternal(pp.withFixedWidth());
636                 // Retain the previous active parser
637                 active.valueParserIndex = activeValueParser;
638             } else {
639                 // Modify the active parser to be fixed width
640                 basePP = basePP.withFixedWidth();
641                 // The new parser becomes the mew active parser
642                 active.valueParserIndex = appendInternal(pp);
643             }
644             // Replace the modified parser with the updated one
645             active.printerParsers.set(activeValueParser, basePP);
646         } else {
647             // The new Parser becomes the active parser
648             active.valueParserIndex = appendInternal(pp);
649         }
650         return this;
651     }
652 
653     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
654     /**
655      * Appends the fractional value of a date-time field to the formatter.
656      * <p>
657      * The fractional value of the field will be output including the
658      * preceding decimal point. The preceding value is not output.
659      * For example, the second-of-minute value of 15 would be output as {@code .25}.
660      * <p>
661      * The width of the printed fraction can be controlled. Setting the
662      * minimum width to zero will cause no output to be generated.
663      * The printed fraction will have the minimum width necessary between
664      * the minimum and maximum widths - trailing zeroes are omitted.
665      * No rounding occurs due to the maximum width - digits are simply dropped.
666      * <p>
667      * When parsing in strict mode, the number of parsed digits must be between
668      * the minimum and maximum width. When parsing in lenient mode, the minimum
669      * width is considered to be zero and the maximum is nine.
670      * <p>
671      * If the value cannot be obtained then an exception will be thrown.
672      * If the value is negative an exception will be thrown.
673      * If the field does not have a fixed set of valid values then an
674      * exception will be thrown.
675      * If the field value in the date-time to be printed is invalid it
676      * cannot be printed and an exception will be thrown.
677      *
678      * @param field  the field to append, not null
679      * @param minWidth  the minimum width of the field excluding the decimal point, from 0 to 9
680      * @param maxWidth  the maximum width of the field excluding the decimal point, from 1 to 9
681      * @param decimalPoint  whether to output the localized decimal point symbol
682      * @return this, for chaining, not null
683      * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the field has a variable set of valid values or
684      *  either width is invalid
685      */
686     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendFraction(
687             TemporalField field, int minWidth, int maxWidth, boolean decimalPoint) {
688         appendInternal(new FractionPrinterParser(field, minWidth, maxWidth, decimalPoint));
689         return this;
690     }
691 
692     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
693     /**
694      * Appends the text of a date-time field to the formatter using the full
695      * text style.
696      * <p>
697      * The text of the field will be output during a format.
698      * The value must be within the valid range of the field.
699      * If the value cannot be obtained then an exception will be thrown.
700      * If the field has no textual representation, then the numeric value will be used.
701      * <p>
702      * The value will be printed as per the normal format of an integer value.
703      * Only negative numbers will be signed. No padding will be added.
704      *
705      * @param field  the field to append, not null
706      * @return this, for chaining, not null
707      */
708     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendText(TemporalField field) {
709         return appendText(field, TextStyle.FULL);
710     }
711 
712     /**
713      * Appends the text of a date-time field to the formatter.
714      * <p>
715      * The text of the field will be output during a format.
716      * The value must be within the valid range of the field.
717      * If the value cannot be obtained then an exception will be thrown.
718      * If the field has no textual representation, then the numeric value will be used.
719      * <p>
720      * The value will be printed as per the normal format of an integer value.
721      * Only negative numbers will be signed. No padding will be added.
722      *
723      * @param field  the field to append, not null
724      * @param textStyle  the text style to use, not null
725      * @return this, for chaining, not null
726      */
727     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendText(TemporalField field, TextStyle textStyle) {
728         Objects.requireNonNull(field, "field");
729         Objects.requireNonNull(textStyle, "textStyle");
730         appendInternal(new TextPrinterParser(field, textStyle, DateTimeTextProvider.getInstance()));
731         return this;
732     }
733 
734     /**
735      * Appends the text of a date-time field to the formatter using the specified
736      * map to supply the text.
737      * <p>
738      * The standard text outputting methods use the localized text in the JDK.
739      * This method allows that text to be specified directly.
740      * The supplied map is not validated by the builder to ensure that formatting or
741      * parsing is possible, thus an invalid map may throw an error during later use.
742      * <p>
743      * Supplying the map of text provides considerable flexibility in formatting and parsing.
744      * For example, a legacy application might require or supply the months of the
745      * year as "JNY", "FBY", "MCH" etc. These do not match the standard set of text
746      * for localized month names. Using this method, a map can be created which
747      * defines the connection between each value and the text:
748      * <pre>
749      * Map&lt;Long, String&gt; map = new HashMap&lt;&gt;();
750      * map.put(1, "JNY");
751      * map.put(2, "FBY");
752      * map.put(3, "MCH");
753      * ...
754      * builder.appendText(MONTH_OF_YEAR, map);
755      * </pre>
756      * <p>
757      * Other uses might be to output the value with a suffix, such as "1st", "2nd", "3rd",
758      * or as Roman numerals "I", "II", "III", "IV".
759      * <p>
760      * During formatting, the value is obtained and checked that it is in the valid range.
761      * If text is not available for the value then it is output as a number.
762      * During parsing, the parser will match against the map of text and numeric values.
763      *
764      * @param field  the field to append, not null
765      * @param textLookup  the map from the value to the text
766      * @return this, for chaining, not null
767      */
768     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendText(TemporalField field, Map<Long, String> textLookup) {
769         Objects.requireNonNull(field, "field");
770         Objects.requireNonNull(textLookup, "textLookup");
771         Map<Long, String> copy = new LinkedHashMap<>(textLookup);
772         Map<TextStyle, Map<Long, String>> map = Collections.singletonMap(TextStyle.FULL, copy);
773         final LocaleStore store = new LocaleStore(map);
774         DateTimeTextProvider provider = new DateTimeTextProvider() {
775             @Override
776             public String getText(TemporalField field, long value, TextStyle style, Locale locale) {
777                 return store.getText(value, style);
778             }
779             @Override
780             public Iterator<Entry<String, Long>> getTextIterator(TemporalField field, TextStyle style, Locale locale) {
781                 return store.getTextIterator(style);
782             }
783         };
784         appendInternal(new TextPrinterParser(field, TextStyle.FULL, provider));
785         return this;
786     }
787 
788     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
789     /**
790      * Appends an instant using ISO-8601 to the formatter, formatting fractional
791      * digits in groups of three.
792      * <p>
793      * Instants have a fixed output format.
794      * They are converted to a date-time with a zone-offset of UTC and formatted
795      * using the standard ISO-8601 format.
796      * With this method, formatting nano-of-second outputs zero, three, six
797      * or nine digits digits as necessary.
798      * The localized decimal style is not used.
799      * <p>
800      * The instant is obtained using {@link ChronoField#INSTANT_SECONDS INSTANT_SECONDS}
801      * and optionally (@code NANO_OF_SECOND). The value of {@code INSTANT_SECONDS}
802      * may be outside the maximum range of {@code LocalDateTime}.
803      * <p>
804      * The {@linkplain ResolverStyle resolver style} has no effect on instant parsing.
805      * The end-of-day time of '24:00' is handled as midnight at the start of the following day.
806      * The leap-second time of '23:59:59' is handled to some degree, see
807      * {@link DateTimeFormatter#parsedLeapSecond()} for full details.
808      * <p>
809      * An alternative to this method is to format/parse the instant as a single
810      * epoch-seconds value. That is achieved using {@code appendValue(INSTANT_SECONDS)}.
811      *
812      * @return this, for chaining, not null
813      */
814     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendInstant() {
815         appendInternal(new InstantPrinterParser(-2));
816         return this;
817     }
818 
819     /**
820      * Appends an instant using ISO-8601 to the formatter with control over
821      * the number of fractional digits.
822      * <p>
823      * Instants have a fixed output format, although this method provides some
824      * control over the fractional digits. They are converted to a date-time
825      * with a zone-offset of UTC and printed using the standard ISO-8601 format.
826      * The localized decimal style is not used.
827      * <p>
828      * The {@code fractionalDigits} parameter allows the output of the fractional
829      * second to be controlled. Specifying zero will cause no fractional digits
830      * to be output. From 1 to 9 will output an increasing number of digits, using
831      * zero right-padding if necessary. The special value -1 is used to output as
832      * many digits as necessary to avoid any trailing zeroes.
833      * <p>
834      * When parsing in strict mode, the number of parsed digits must match the
835      * fractional digits. When parsing in lenient mode, any number of fractional
836      * digits from zero to nine are accepted.
837      * <p>
838      * The instant is obtained using {@link ChronoField#INSTANT_SECONDS INSTANT_SECONDS}
839      * and optionally (@code NANO_OF_SECOND). The value of {@code INSTANT_SECONDS}
840      * may be outside the maximum range of {@code LocalDateTime}.
841      * <p>
842      * The {@linkplain ResolverStyle resolver style} has no effect on instant parsing.
843      * The end-of-day time of '24:00' is handled as midnight at the start of the following day.
844      * The leap-second time of '23:59:59' is handled to some degree, see
845      * {@link DateTimeFormatter#parsedLeapSecond()} for full details.
846      * <p>
847      * An alternative to this method is to format/parse the instant as a single
848      * epoch-seconds value. That is achieved using {@code appendValue(INSTANT_SECONDS)}.
849      *
850      * @param fractionalDigits  the number of fractional second digits to format with,
851      *  from 0 to 9, or -1 to use as many digits as necessary
852      * @return this, for chaining, not null
853      */
854     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendInstant(int fractionalDigits) {
855         if (fractionalDigits < -1 || fractionalDigits > 9) {
856             throw new IllegalArgumentException("The fractional digits must be from -1 to 9 inclusive but was " + fractionalDigits);
857         }
858         appendInternal(new InstantPrinterParser(fractionalDigits));
859         return this;
860     }
861 
862     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
863     /**
864      * Appends the zone offset, such as '+01:00', to the formatter.
865      * <p>
866      * This appends an instruction to format/parse the offset ID to the builder.
867      * This is equivalent to calling {@code appendOffset("HH:MM:ss", "Z")}.
868      *
869      * @return this, for chaining, not null
870      */
871     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendOffsetId() {
872         appendInternal(OffsetIdPrinterParser.INSTANCE_ID_Z);
873         return this;
874     }
875 
876     /**
877      * Appends the zone offset, such as '+01:00', to the formatter.
878      * <p>
879      * This appends an instruction to format/parse the offset ID to the builder.
880      * <p>
881      * During formatting, the offset is obtained using a mechanism equivalent
882      * to querying the temporal with {@link TemporalQueries#offset()}.
883      * It will be printed using the format defined below.
884      * If the offset cannot be obtained then an exception is thrown unless the
885      * section of the formatter is optional.
886      * <p>
887      * During parsing, the offset is parsed using the format defined below.
888      * If the offset cannot be parsed then an exception is thrown unless the
889      * section of the formatter is optional.
890      * <p>
891      * The format of the offset is controlled by a pattern which must be one
892      * of the following:
893      * <ul>
894      * <li>{@code +HH} - hour only, ignoring minute and second
895      * <li>{@code +HHmm} - hour, with minute if non-zero, ignoring second, no colon
896      * <li>{@code +HH:mm} - hour, with minute if non-zero, ignoring second, with colon
897      * <li>{@code +HHMM} - hour and minute, ignoring second, no colon
898      * <li>{@code +HH:MM} - hour and minute, ignoring second, with colon
899      * <li>{@code +HHMMss} - hour and minute, with second if non-zero, no colon
900      * <li>{@code +HH:MM:ss} - hour and minute, with second if non-zero, with colon
901      * <li>{@code +HHMMSS} - hour, minute and second, no colon
902      * <li>{@code +HH:MM:SS} - hour, minute and second, with colon
903      * </ul>
904      * The "no offset" text controls what text is printed when the total amount of
905      * the offset fields to be output is zero.
906      * Example values would be 'Z', '+00:00', 'UTC' or 'GMT'.
907      * Three formats are accepted for parsing UTC - the "no offset" text, and the
908      * plus and minus versions of zero defined by the pattern.
909      *
910      * @param pattern  the pattern to use, not null
911      * @param noOffsetText  the text to use when the offset is zero, not null
912      * @return this, for chaining, not null
913      */
914     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendOffset(String pattern, String noOffsetText) {
915         appendInternal(new OffsetIdPrinterParser(pattern, noOffsetText));
916         return this;
917     }
918 
919     /**
920      * Appends the localized zone offset, such as 'GMT+01:00', to the formatter.
921      * <p>
922      * This appends a localized zone offset to the builder, the format of the
923      * localized offset is controlled by the specified {@link FormatStyle style}
924      * to this method:
925      * <ul>
926      * <li>{@link TextStyle#FULL full} - formats with localized offset text, such
927      * as 'GMT, 2-digit hour and minute field, optional second field if non-zero,
928      * and colon.
929      * <li>{@link TextStyle#SHORT short} - formats with localized offset text,
930      * such as 'GMT, hour without leading zero, optional 2-digit minute and
931      * second if non-zero, and colon.
932      * </ul>
933      * <p>
934      * During formatting, the offset is obtained using a mechanism equivalent
935      * to querying the temporal with {@link TemporalQueries#offset()}.
936      * If the offset cannot be obtained then an exception is thrown unless the
937      * section of the formatter is optional.
938      * <p>
939      * During parsing, the offset is parsed using the format defined above.
940      * If the offset cannot be parsed then an exception is thrown unless the
941      * section of the formatter is optional.
942      * <p>
943      * @param style  the format style to use, not null
944      * @return this, for chaining, not null
945      * @throws IllegalArgumentException if style is neither {@link TextStyle#FULL
946      * full} nor {@link TextStyle#SHORT short}
947      */
948     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendLocalizedOffset(TextStyle style) {
949         Objects.requireNonNull(style, "style");
950         if (style != TextStyle.FULL && style != TextStyle.SHORT) {
951             throw new IllegalArgumentException("Style must be either full or short");
952         }
953         appendInternal(new LocalizedOffsetIdPrinterParser(style));
954         return this;
955     }
956 
957     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
958     /**
959      * Appends the time-zone ID, such as 'Europe/Paris' or '+02:00', to the formatter.
960      * <p>
961      * This appends an instruction to format/parse the zone ID to the builder.
962      * The zone ID is obtained in a strict manner suitable for {@code ZonedDateTime}.
963      * By contrast, {@code OffsetDateTime} does not have a zone ID suitable
964      * for use with this method, see {@link #appendZoneOrOffsetId()}.
965      * <p>
966      * During formatting, the zone is obtained using a mechanism equivalent
967      * to querying the temporal with {@link TemporalQueries#zoneId()}.
968      * It will be printed using the result of {@link ZoneId#getId()}.
969      * If the zone cannot be obtained then an exception is thrown unless the
970      * section of the formatter is optional.
971      * <p>
972      * During parsing, the text must match a known zone or offset.
973      * There are two types of zone ID, offset-based, such as '+01:30' and
974      * region-based, such as 'Europe/London'. These are parsed differently.
975      * If the parse starts with '+', '-', 'UT', 'UTC' or 'GMT', then the parser
976      * expects an offset-based zone and will not match region-based zones.
977      * The offset ID, such as '+02:30', may be at the start of the parse,
978      * or prefixed by  'UT', 'UTC' or 'GMT'. The offset ID parsing is
979      * equivalent to using {@link #appendOffset(String, String)} using the
980      * arguments 'HH:MM:ss' and the no offset string '0'.
981      * If the parse starts with 'UT', 'UTC' or 'GMT', and the parser cannot
982      * match a following offset ID, then {@link ZoneOffset#UTC} is selected.
983      * In all other cases, the list of known region-based zones is used to
984      * find the longest available match. If no match is found, and the parse
985      * starts with 'Z', then {@code ZoneOffset.UTC} is selected.
986      * The parser uses the {@linkplain #parseCaseInsensitive() case sensitive} setting.
987      * <p>
988      * For example, the following will parse:
989      * <pre>
990      *   "Europe/London"           -- ZoneId.of("Europe/London")
991      *   "Z"                       -- ZoneOffset.UTC
992      *   "UT"                      -- ZoneId.of("UT")
993      *   "UTC"                     -- ZoneId.of("UTC")
994      *   "GMT"                     -- ZoneId.of("GMT")
995      *   "+01:30"                  -- ZoneOffset.of("+01:30")
996      *   "UT+01:30"                -- ZoneOffset.of("+01:30")
997      *   "UTC+01:30"               -- ZoneOffset.of("+01:30")
998      *   "GMT+01:30"               -- ZoneOffset.of("+01:30")
999      * </pre>
1000      *
1001      * @return this, for chaining, not null
1002      * @see #appendZoneRegionId()
1003      */
1004     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendZoneId() {
1005         appendInternal(new ZoneIdPrinterParser(TemporalQueries.zoneId(), "ZoneId()"));
1006         return this;
1007     }
1008 
1009     /**
1010      * Appends the time-zone region ID, such as 'Europe/Paris', to the formatter,
1011      * rejecting the zone ID if it is a {@code ZoneOffset}.
1012      * <p>
1013      * This appends an instruction to format/parse the zone ID to the builder
1014      * only if it is a region-based ID.
1015      * <p>
1016      * During formatting, the zone is obtained using a mechanism equivalent
1017      * to querying the temporal with {@link TemporalQueries#zoneId()}.
1018      * If the zone is a {@code ZoneOffset} or it cannot be obtained then
1019      * an exception is thrown unless the section of the formatter is optional.
1020      * If the zone is not an offset, then the zone will be printed using
1021      * the zone ID from {@link ZoneId#getId()}.
1022      * <p>
1023      * During parsing, the text must match a known zone or offset.
1024      * There are two types of zone ID, offset-based, such as '+01:30' and
1025      * region-based, such as 'Europe/London'. These are parsed differently.
1026      * If the parse starts with '+', '-', 'UT', 'UTC' or 'GMT', then the parser
1027      * expects an offset-based zone and will not match region-based zones.
1028      * The offset ID, such as '+02:30', may be at the start of the parse,
1029      * or prefixed by  'UT', 'UTC' or 'GMT'. The offset ID parsing is
1030      * equivalent to using {@link #appendOffset(String, String)} using the
1031      * arguments 'HH:MM:ss' and the no offset string '0'.
1032      * If the parse starts with 'UT', 'UTC' or 'GMT', and the parser cannot
1033      * match a following offset ID, then {@link ZoneOffset#UTC} is selected.
1034      * In all other cases, the list of known region-based zones is used to
1035      * find the longest available match. If no match is found, and the parse
1036      * starts with 'Z', then {@code ZoneOffset.UTC} is selected.
1037      * The parser uses the {@linkplain #parseCaseInsensitive() case sensitive} setting.
1038      * <p>
1039      * For example, the following will parse:
1040      * <pre>
1041      *   "Europe/London"           -- ZoneId.of("Europe/London")
1042      *   "Z"                       -- ZoneOffset.UTC
1043      *   "UT"                      -- ZoneId.of("UT")
1044      *   "UTC"                     -- ZoneId.of("UTC")
1045      *   "GMT"                     -- ZoneId.of("GMT")
1046      *   "+01:30"                  -- ZoneOffset.of("+01:30")
1047      *   "UT+01:30"                -- ZoneOffset.of("+01:30")
1048      *   "UTC+01:30"               -- ZoneOffset.of("+01:30")
1049      *   "GMT+01:30"               -- ZoneOffset.of("+01:30")
1050      * </pre>
1051      * <p>
1052      * Note that this method is is identical to {@code appendZoneId()} except
1053      * in the mechanism used to obtain the zone.
1054      * Note also that parsing accepts offsets, whereas formatting will never
1055      * produce one.
1056      *
1057      * @return this, for chaining, not null
1058      * @see #appendZoneId()
1059      */
1060     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendZoneRegionId() {
1061         appendInternal(new ZoneIdPrinterParser(QUERY_REGION_ONLY, "ZoneRegionId()"));
1062         return this;
1063     }
1064 
1065     /**
1066      * Appends the time-zone ID, such as 'Europe/Paris' or '+02:00', to
1067      * the formatter, using the best available zone ID.
1068      * <p>
1069      * This appends an instruction to format/parse the best available
1070      * zone or offset ID to the builder.
1071      * The zone ID is obtained in a lenient manner that first attempts to
1072      * find a true zone ID, such as that on {@code ZonedDateTime}, and
1073      * then attempts to find an offset, such as that on {@code OffsetDateTime}.
1074      * <p>
1075      * During formatting, the zone is obtained using a mechanism equivalent
1076      * to querying the temporal with {@link TemporalQueries#zone()}.
1077      * It will be printed using the result of {@link ZoneId#getId()}.
1078      * If the zone cannot be obtained then an exception is thrown unless the
1079      * section of the formatter is optional.
1080      * <p>
1081      * During parsing, the text must match a known zone or offset.
1082      * There are two types of zone ID, offset-based, such as '+01:30' and
1083      * region-based, such as 'Europe/London'. These are parsed differently.
1084      * If the parse starts with '+', '-', 'UT', 'UTC' or 'GMT', then the parser
1085      * expects an offset-based zone and will not match region-based zones.
1086      * The offset ID, such as '+02:30', may be at the start of the parse,
1087      * or prefixed by  'UT', 'UTC' or 'GMT'. The offset ID parsing is
1088      * equivalent to using {@link #appendOffset(String, String)} using the
1089      * arguments 'HH:MM:ss' and the no offset string '0'.
1090      * If the parse starts with 'UT', 'UTC' or 'GMT', and the parser cannot
1091      * match a following offset ID, then {@link ZoneOffset#UTC} is selected.
1092      * In all other cases, the list of known region-based zones is used to
1093      * find the longest available match. If no match is found, and the parse
1094      * starts with 'Z', then {@code ZoneOffset.UTC} is selected.
1095      * The parser uses the {@linkplain #parseCaseInsensitive() case sensitive} setting.
1096      * <p>
1097      * For example, the following will parse:
1098      * <pre>
1099      *   "Europe/London"           -- ZoneId.of("Europe/London")
1100      *   "Z"                       -- ZoneOffset.UTC
1101      *   "UT"                      -- ZoneId.of("UT")
1102      *   "UTC"                     -- ZoneId.of("UTC")
1103      *   "GMT"                     -- ZoneId.of("GMT")
1104      *   "+01:30"                  -- ZoneOffset.of("+01:30")
1105      *   "UT+01:30"                -- ZoneOffset.of("UT+01:30")
1106      *   "UTC+01:30"               -- ZoneOffset.of("UTC+01:30")
1107      *   "GMT+01:30"               -- ZoneOffset.of("GMT+01:30")
1108      * </pre>
1109      * <p>
1110      * Note that this method is is identical to {@code appendZoneId()} except
1111      * in the mechanism used to obtain the zone.
1112      *
1113      * @return this, for chaining, not null
1114      * @see #appendZoneId()
1115      */
1116     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendZoneOrOffsetId() {
1117         appendInternal(new ZoneIdPrinterParser(TemporalQueries.zone(), "ZoneOrOffsetId()"));
1118         return this;
1119     }
1120 
1121     /**
1122      * Appends the time-zone name, such as 'British Summer Time', to the formatter.
1123      * <p>
1124      * This appends an instruction to format/parse the textual name of the zone to
1125      * the builder.
1126      * <p>
1127      * During formatting, the zone is obtained using a mechanism equivalent
1128      * to querying the temporal with {@link TemporalQueries#zoneId()}.
1129      * If the zone is a {@code ZoneOffset} it will be printed using the
1130      * result of {@link ZoneOffset#getId()}.
1131      * If the zone is not an offset, the textual name will be looked up
1132      * for the locale set in the {@link DateTimeFormatter}.
1133      * If the temporal object being printed represents an instant, then the text
1134      * will be the summer or winter time text as appropriate.
1135      * If the lookup for text does not find any suitable reuslt, then the
1136      * {@link ZoneId#getId() ID} will be printed instead.
1137      * If the zone cannot be obtained then an exception is thrown unless the
1138      * section of the formatter is optional.
1139      * <p>
1140      * During parsing, either the textual zone name, the zone ID or the offset
1141      * is accepted. Many textual zone names are not unique, such as CST can be
1142      * for both "Central Standard Time" and "China Standard Time". In this
1143      * situation, the zone id will be determined by the region information from
1144      * formatter's  {@link DateTimeFormatter#getLocale() locale} and the standard
1145      * zone id for that area, for example, America/New_York for the America Eastern
1146      * zone. The {@link #appendZoneText(TextStyle, Set)} may be used
1147      * to specify a set of preferred {@link ZoneId} in this situation.
1148      *
1149      * @param textStyle  the text style to use, not null
1150      * @return this, for chaining, not null
1151      */
1152     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendZoneText(TextStyle textStyle) {
1153         appendInternal(new ZoneTextPrinterParser(textStyle, null));
1154         return this;
1155     }
1156 
1157     /**
1158      * Appends the time-zone name, such as 'British Summer Time', to the formatter.
1159      * <p>
1160      * This appends an instruction to format/parse the textual name of the zone to
1161      * the builder.
1162      * <p>
1163      * During formatting, the zone is obtained using a mechanism equivalent
1164      * to querying the temporal with {@link TemporalQueries#zoneId()}.
1165      * If the zone is a {@code ZoneOffset} it will be printed using the
1166      * result of {@link ZoneOffset#getId()}.
1167      * If the zone is not an offset, the textual name will be looked up
1168      * for the locale set in the {@link DateTimeFormatter}.
1169      * If the temporal object being printed represents an instant, then the text
1170      * will be the summer or winter time text as appropriate.
1171      * If the lookup for text does not find any suitable reuslt, then the
1172      * {@link ZoneId#getId() ID} will be printed instead.
1173      * If the zone cannot be obtained then an exception is thrown unless the
1174      * section of the formatter is optional.
1175      * <p>
1176      * During parsing, either the textual zone name, the zone ID or the offset
1177      * is accepted. Many textual zone names are not unique, such as CST can be
1178      * for both "Central Standard Time" and "China Standard Time". In this
1179      * situation, the zone id will be determined by the region information from
1180      * formatter's  {@link DateTimeFormatter#getLocale() locale} and the standard
1181      * zone id for that area, for example, America/New_York for the America Eastern
1182      * zone. This method also allows a set of preferred {@link ZoneId} to be
1183      * specified for parsing. The matched preferred zone id will be used if the
1184      * textural zone name being parsed is not unique.
1185      *
1186      * If the zone cannot be parsed then an exception is thrown unless the
1187      * section of the formatter is optional.
1188      *
1189      * @param textStyle  the text style to use, not null
1190      * @param preferredZones  the set of preferred zone ids, not null
1191      * @return this, for chaining, not null
1192      */
1193     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendZoneText(TextStyle textStyle,
1194                                                    Set<ZoneId> preferredZones) {
1195         Objects.requireNonNull(preferredZones, "preferredZones");
1196         appendInternal(new ZoneTextPrinterParser(textStyle, preferredZones));
1197         return this;
1198     }
1199 
1200     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
1201     /**
1202      * Appends the chronology ID, such as 'ISO' or 'ThaiBuddhist', to the formatter.
1203      * <p>
1204      * This appends an instruction to format/parse the chronology ID to the builder.
1205      * <p>
1206      * During formatting, the chronology is obtained using a mechanism equivalent
1207      * to querying the temporal with {@link TemporalQueries#chronology()}.
1208      * It will be printed using the result of {@link Chronology#getId()}.
1209      * If the chronology cannot be obtained then an exception is thrown unless the
1210      * section of the formatter is optional.
1211      * <p>
1212      * During parsing, the chronology is parsed and must match one of the chronologies
1213      * in {@link Chronology#getAvailableChronologies()}.
1214      * If the chronology cannot be parsed then an exception is thrown unless the
1215      * section of the formatter is optional.
1216      * The parser uses the {@linkplain #parseCaseInsensitive() case sensitive} setting.
1217      *
1218      * @return this, for chaining, not null
1219      */
1220     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendChronologyId() {
1221         appendInternal(new ChronoPrinterParser(null));
1222         return this;
1223     }
1224 
1225     /**
1226      * Appends the chronology name to the formatter.
1227      * <p>
1228      * The calendar system name will be output during a format.
1229      * If the chronology cannot be obtained then an exception will be thrown.
1230      * The calendar system name is obtained from the Chronology.
1231      *
1232      * @param textStyle  the text style to use, not null
1233      * @return this, for chaining, not null
1234      */
1235     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendChronologyText(TextStyle textStyle) {
1236         Objects.requireNonNull(textStyle, "textStyle");
1237         appendInternal(new ChronoPrinterParser(textStyle));
1238         return this;
1239     }
1240 
1241     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
1242     /**
1243      * Appends a localized date-time pattern to the formatter.
1244      * <p>
1245      * This appends a localized section to the builder, suitable for outputting
1246      * a date, time or date-time combination. The format of the localized
1247      * section is lazily looked up based on four items:
1248      * <ul>
1249      * <li>the {@code dateStyle} specified to this method
1250      * <li>the {@code timeStyle} specified to this method
1251      * <li>the {@code Locale} of the {@code DateTimeFormatter}
1252      * <li>the {@code Chronology}, selecting the best available
1253      * </ul>
1254      * During formatting, the chronology is obtained from the temporal object
1255      * being formatted, which may have been overridden by
1256      * {@link DateTimeFormatter#withChronology(Chronology)}.
1257      * <p>
1258      * During parsing, if a chronology has already been parsed, then it is used.
1259      * Otherwise the default from {@code DateTimeFormatter.withChronology(Chronology)}
1260      * is used, with {@code IsoChronology} as the fallback.
1261      * <p>
1262      * Note that this method provides similar functionality to methods on
1263      * {@code DateFormat} such as {@link java.text.DateFormat#getDateTimeInstance(int, int)}.
1264      *
1265      * @param dateStyle  the date style to use, null means no date required
1266      * @param timeStyle  the time style to use, null means no time required
1267      * @return this, for chaining, not null
1268      * @throws IllegalArgumentException if both the date and time styles are null
1269      */
1270     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendLocalized(FormatStyle dateStyle, FormatStyle timeStyle) {
1271         if (dateStyle == null && timeStyle == null) {
1272             throw new IllegalArgumentException("Either the date or time style must be non-null");
1273         }
1274         appendInternal(new LocalizedPrinterParser(dateStyle, timeStyle));
1275         return this;
1276     }
1277 
1278     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
1279     /**
1280      * Appends a character literal to the formatter.
1281      * <p>
1282      * This character will be output during a format.
1283      *
1284      * @param literal  the literal to append, not null
1285      * @return this, for chaining, not null
1286      */
1287     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendLiteral(char literal) {
1288         appendInternal(new CharLiteralPrinterParser(literal));
1289         return this;
1290     }
1291 
1292     /**
1293      * Appends a string literal to the formatter.
1294      * <p>
1295      * This string will be output during a format.
1296      * <p>
1297      * If the literal is empty, nothing is added to the formatter.
1298      *
1299      * @param literal  the literal to append, not null
1300      * @return this, for chaining, not null
1301      */
1302     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendLiteral(String literal) {
1303         Objects.requireNonNull(literal, "literal");
1304         if (literal.length() > 0) {
1305             if (literal.length() == 1) {
1306                 appendInternal(new CharLiteralPrinterParser(literal.charAt(0)));
1307             } else {
1308                 appendInternal(new StringLiteralPrinterParser(literal));
1309             }
1310         }
1311         return this;
1312     }
1313 
1314     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
1315     /**
1316      * Appends all the elements of a formatter to the builder.
1317      * <p>
1318      * This method has the same effect as appending each of the constituent
1319      * parts of the formatter directly to this builder.
1320      *
1321      * @param formatter  the formatter to add, not null
1322      * @return this, for chaining, not null
1323      */
1324     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder append(DateTimeFormatter formatter) {
1325         Objects.requireNonNull(formatter, "formatter");
1326         appendInternal(formatter.toPrinterParser(false));
1327         return this;
1328     }
1329 
1330     /**
1331      * Appends a formatter to the builder which will optionally format/parse.
1332      * <p>
1333      * This method has the same effect as appending each of the constituent
1334      * parts directly to this builder surrounded by an {@link #optionalStart()} and
1335      * {@link #optionalEnd()}.
1336      * <p>
1337      * The formatter will format if data is available for all the fields contained within it.
1338      * The formatter will parse if the string matches, otherwise no error is returned.
1339      *
1340      * @param formatter  the formatter to add, not null
1341      * @return this, for chaining, not null
1342      */
1343     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendOptional(DateTimeFormatter formatter) {
1344         Objects.requireNonNull(formatter, "formatter");
1345         appendInternal(formatter.toPrinterParser(true));
1346         return this;
1347     }
1348 
1349     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
1350     /**
1351      * Appends the elements defined by the specified pattern to the builder.
1352      * <p>
1353      * All letters 'A' to 'Z' and 'a' to 'z' are reserved as pattern letters.
1354      * The characters '#', '{' and '}' are reserved for future use.
1355      * The characters '[' and ']' indicate optional patterns.
1356      * The following pattern letters are defined:
1357      * <pre>
1358      *  Symbol  Meaning                     Presentation      Examples
1359      *  ------  -------                     ------------      -------
1360      *   G       era                         text              AD; Anno Domini; A
1361      *   u       year                        year              2004; 04
1362      *   y       year-of-era                 year              2004; 04
1363      *   D       day-of-year                 number            189
1364      *   M/L     month-of-year               number/text       7; 07; Jul; July; J
1365      *   d       day-of-month                number            10
1366      *
1367      *   Q/q     quarter-of-year             number/text       3; 03; Q3; 3rd quarter
1368      *   Y       week-based-year             year              1996; 96
1369      *   w       week-of-week-based-year     number            27
1370      *   W       week-of-month               number            4
1371      *   E       day-of-week                 text              Tue; Tuesday; T
1372      *   e/c     localized day-of-week       number/text       2; 02; Tue; Tuesday; T
1373      *   F       week-of-month               number            3
1374      *
1375      *   a       am-pm-of-day                text              PM
1376      *   h       clock-hour-of-am-pm (1-12)  number            12
1377      *   K       hour-of-am-pm (0-11)        number            0
1378      *   k       clock-hour-of-am-pm (1-24)  number            0
1379      *
1380      *   H       hour-of-day (0-23)          number            0
1381      *   m       minute-of-hour              number            30
1382      *   s       second-of-minute            number            55
1383      *   S       fraction-of-second          fraction          978
1384      *   A       milli-of-day                number            1234
1385      *   n       nano-of-second              number            987654321
1386      *   N       nano-of-day                 number            1234000000
1387      *
1388      *   V       time-zone ID                zone-id           America/Los_Angeles; Z; -08:30
1389      *   z       time-zone name              zone-name         Pacific Standard Time; PST
1390      *   O       localized zone-offset       offset-O          GMT+8; GMT+08:00; UTC-08:00;
1391      *   X       zone-offset 'Z' for zero    offset-X          Z; -08; -0830; -08:30; -083015; -08:30:15;
1392      *   x       zone-offset                 offset-x          +0000; -08; -0830; -08:30; -083015; -08:30:15;
1393      *   Z       zone-offset                 offset-Z          +0000; -0800; -08:00;
1394      *
1395      *   p       pad next                    pad modifier      1
1396      *
1397      *   '       escape for text             delimiter
1398      *   ''      single quote                literal           '
1399      *   [       optional section start
1400      *   ]       optional section end
1401      *   #       reserved for future use
1402      *   {       reserved for future use
1403      *   }       reserved for future use
1404      * </pre>
1405      * <p>
1406      * The count of pattern letters determine the format.
1407      * See <a href="DateTimeFormatter.html#patterns">DateTimeFormatter</a> for a user-focused description of the patterns.
1408      * The following tables define how the pattern letters map to the builder.
1409      * <p>
1410      * <b>Date fields</b>: Pattern letters to output a date.
1411      * <pre>
1412      *  Pattern  Count  Equivalent builder methods
1413      *  -------  -----  --------------------------
1414      *    G       1      appendText(ChronoField.ERA, TextStyle.SHORT)
1415      *    GG      2      appendText(ChronoField.ERA, TextStyle.SHORT)
1416      *    GGG     3      appendText(ChronoField.ERA, TextStyle.SHORT)
1417      *    GGGG    4      appendText(ChronoField.ERA, TextStyle.FULL)
1418      *    GGGGG   5      appendText(ChronoField.ERA, TextStyle.NARROW)
1419      *
1420      *    u       1      appendValue(ChronoField.YEAR, 1, 19, SignStyle.NORMAL);
1421      *    uu      2      appendValueReduced(ChronoField.YEAR, 2, 2000);
1422      *    uuu     3      appendValue(ChronoField.YEAR, 3, 19, SignStyle.NORMAL);
1423      *    u..u    4..n   appendValue(ChronoField.YEAR, n, 19, SignStyle.EXCEEDS_PAD);
1424      *    y       1      appendValue(ChronoField.YEAR_OF_ERA, 1, 19, SignStyle.NORMAL);
1425      *    yy      2      appendValueReduced(ChronoField.YEAR_OF_ERA, 2, 2000);
1426      *    yyy     3      appendValue(ChronoField.YEAR_OF_ERA, 3, 19, SignStyle.NORMAL);
1427      *    y..y    4..n   appendValue(ChronoField.YEAR_OF_ERA, n, 19, SignStyle.EXCEEDS_PAD);
1428      *    Y       1      append special localized WeekFields element for numeric week-based-year
1429      *    YY      2      append special localized WeekFields element for reduced numeric week-based-year 2 digits;
1430      *    YYY     3      append special localized WeekFields element for numeric week-based-year (3, 19, SignStyle.NORMAL);
1431      *    Y..Y    4..n   append special localized WeekFields element for numeric week-based-year (n, 19, SignStyle.EXCEEDS_PAD);
1432      *
1433      *    Q       1      appendValue(IsoFields.QUARTER_OF_YEAR);
1434      *    QQ      2      appendValue(IsoFields.QUARTER_OF_YEAR, 2);
1435      *    QQQ     3      appendText(IsoFields.QUARTER_OF_YEAR, TextStyle.SHORT)
1436      *    QQQQ    4      appendText(IsoFields.QUARTER_OF_YEAR, TextStyle.FULL)
1437      *    QQQQQ   5      appendText(IsoFields.QUARTER_OF_YEAR, TextStyle.NARROW)
1438      *    q       1      appendValue(IsoFields.QUARTER_OF_YEAR);
1439      *    qq      2      appendValue(IsoFields.QUARTER_OF_YEAR, 2);
1440      *    qqq     3      appendText(IsoFields.QUARTER_OF_YEAR, TextStyle.SHORT_STANDALONE)
1441      *    qqqq    4      appendText(IsoFields.QUARTER_OF_YEAR, TextStyle.FULL_STANDALONE)
1442      *    qqqqq   5      appendText(IsoFields.QUARTER_OF_YEAR, TextStyle.NARROW_STANDALONE)
1443      *
1444      *    M       1      appendValue(ChronoField.MONTH_OF_YEAR);
1445      *    MM      2      appendValue(ChronoField.MONTH_OF_YEAR, 2);
1446      *    MMM     3      appendText(ChronoField.MONTH_OF_YEAR, TextStyle.SHORT)
1447      *    MMMM    4      appendText(ChronoField.MONTH_OF_YEAR, TextStyle.FULL)
1448      *    MMMMM   5      appendText(ChronoField.MONTH_OF_YEAR, TextStyle.NARROW)
1449      *    L       1      appendValue(ChronoField.MONTH_OF_YEAR);
1450      *    LL      2      appendValue(ChronoField.MONTH_OF_YEAR, 2);
1451      *    LLL     3      appendText(ChronoField.MONTH_OF_YEAR, TextStyle.SHORT_STANDALONE)
1452      *    LLLL    4      appendText(ChronoField.MONTH_OF_YEAR, TextStyle.FULL_STANDALONE)
1453      *    LLLLL   5      appendText(ChronoField.MONTH_OF_YEAR, TextStyle.NARROW_STANDALONE)
1454      *
1455      *    w       1      append special localized WeekFields element for numeric week-of-year
1456      *    ww      1      append special localized WeekFields element for numeric week-of-year, zero-padded
1457      *    W       1      append special localized WeekFields element for numeric week-of-month
1458      *    d       1      appendValue(ChronoField.DAY_OF_MONTH)
1459      *    dd      2      appendValue(ChronoField.DAY_OF_MONTH, 2)
1460      *    D       1      appendValue(ChronoField.DAY_OF_YEAR)
1461      *    DD      2      appendValue(ChronoField.DAY_OF_YEAR, 2)
1462      *    DDD     3      appendValue(ChronoField.DAY_OF_YEAR, 3)
1463      *    F       1      appendValue(ChronoField.ALIGNED_DAY_OF_WEEK_IN_MONTH)
1464      *    E       1      appendText(ChronoField.DAY_OF_WEEK, TextStyle.SHORT)
1465      *    EE      2      appendText(ChronoField.DAY_OF_WEEK, TextStyle.SHORT)
1466      *    EEE     3      appendText(ChronoField.DAY_OF_WEEK, TextStyle.SHORT)
1467      *    EEEE    4      appendText(ChronoField.DAY_OF_WEEK, TextStyle.FULL)
1468      *    EEEEE   5      appendText(ChronoField.DAY_OF_WEEK, TextStyle.NARROW)
1469      *    e       1      append special localized WeekFields element for numeric day-of-week
1470      *    ee      2      append special localized WeekFields element for numeric day-of-week, zero-padded
1471      *    eee     3      appendText(ChronoField.DAY_OF_WEEK, TextStyle.SHORT)
1472      *    eeee    4      appendText(ChronoField.DAY_OF_WEEK, TextStyle.FULL)
1473      *    eeeee   5      appendText(ChronoField.DAY_OF_WEEK, TextStyle.NARROW)
1474      *    c       1      append special localized WeekFields element for numeric day-of-week
1475      *    ccc     3      appendText(ChronoField.DAY_OF_WEEK, TextStyle.SHORT_STANDALONE)
1476      *    cccc    4      appendText(ChronoField.DAY_OF_WEEK, TextStyle.FULL_STANDALONE)
1477      *    ccccc   5      appendText(ChronoField.DAY_OF_WEEK, TextStyle.NARROW_STANDALONE)
1478      * </pre>
1479      * <p>
1480      * <b>Time fields</b>: Pattern letters to output a time.
1481      * <pre>
1482      *  Pattern  Count  Equivalent builder methods
1483      *  -------  -----  --------------------------
1484      *    a       1      appendText(ChronoField.AMPM_OF_DAY, TextStyle.SHORT)
1485      *    h       1      appendValue(ChronoField.CLOCK_HOUR_OF_AMPM)
1486      *    hh      2      appendValue(ChronoField.CLOCK_HOUR_OF_AMPM, 2)
1487      *    H       1      appendValue(ChronoField.HOUR_OF_DAY)
1488      *    HH      2      appendValue(ChronoField.HOUR_OF_DAY, 2)
1489      *    k       1      appendValue(ChronoField.CLOCK_HOUR_OF_DAY)
1490      *    kk      2      appendValue(ChronoField.CLOCK_HOUR_OF_DAY, 2)
1491      *    K       1      appendValue(ChronoField.HOUR_OF_AMPM)
1492      *    KK      2      appendValue(ChronoField.HOUR_OF_AMPM, 2)
1493      *    m       1      appendValue(ChronoField.MINUTE_OF_HOUR)
1494      *    mm      2      appendValue(ChronoField.MINUTE_OF_HOUR, 2)
1495      *    s       1      appendValue(ChronoField.SECOND_OF_MINUTE)
1496      *    ss      2      appendValue(ChronoField.SECOND_OF_MINUTE, 2)
1497      *
1498      *    S..S    1..n   appendFraction(ChronoField.NANO_OF_SECOND, n, n, false)
1499      *    A       1      appendValue(ChronoField.MILLI_OF_DAY)
1500      *    A..A    2..n   appendValue(ChronoField.MILLI_OF_DAY, n)
1501      *    n       1      appendValue(ChronoField.NANO_OF_SECOND)
1502      *    n..n    2..n   appendValue(ChronoField.NANO_OF_SECOND, n)
1503      *    N       1      appendValue(ChronoField.NANO_OF_DAY)
1504      *    N..N    2..n   appendValue(ChronoField.NANO_OF_DAY, n)
1505      * </pre>
1506      * <p>
1507      * <b>Zone ID</b>: Pattern letters to output {@code ZoneId}.
1508      * <pre>
1509      *  Pattern  Count  Equivalent builder methods
1510      *  -------  -----  --------------------------
1511      *    VV      2      appendZoneId()
1512      *    z       1      appendZoneText(TextStyle.SHORT)
1513      *    zz      2      appendZoneText(TextStyle.SHORT)
1514      *    zzz     3      appendZoneText(TextStyle.SHORT)
1515      *    zzzz    4      appendZoneText(TextStyle.FULL)
1516      * </pre>
1517      * <p>
1518      * <b>Zone offset</b>: Pattern letters to output {@code ZoneOffset}.
1519      * <pre>
1520      *  Pattern  Count  Equivalent builder methods
1521      *  -------  -----  --------------------------
1522      *    O       1      appendLocalizedOffsetPrefixed(TextStyle.SHORT);
1523      *    OOOO    4      appendLocalizedOffsetPrefixed(TextStyle.FULL);
1524      *    X       1      appendOffset("+HHmm","Z")
1525      *    XX      2      appendOffset("+HHMM","Z")
1526      *    XXX     3      appendOffset("+HH:MM","Z")
1527      *    XXXX    4      appendOffset("+HHMMss","Z")
1528      *    XXXXX   5      appendOffset("+HH:MM:ss","Z")
1529      *    x       1      appendOffset("+HHmm","+00")
1530      *    xx      2      appendOffset("+HHMM","+0000")
1531      *    xxx     3      appendOffset("+HH:MM","+00:00")
1532      *    xxxx    4      appendOffset("+HHMMss","+0000")
1533      *    xxxxx   5      appendOffset("+HH:MM:ss","+00:00")
1534      *    Z       1      appendOffset("+HHMM","+0000")
1535      *    ZZ      2      appendOffset("+HHMM","+0000")
1536      *    ZZZ     3      appendOffset("+HHMM","+0000")
1537      *    ZZZZ    4      appendLocalizedOffset(TextStyle.FULL);
1538      *    ZZZZZ   5      appendOffset("+HH:MM:ss","Z")
1539      * </pre>
1540      * <p>
1541      * <b>Modifiers</b>: Pattern letters that modify the rest of the pattern:
1542      * <pre>
1543      *  Pattern  Count  Equivalent builder methods
1544      *  -------  -----  --------------------------
1545      *    [       1      optionalStart()
1546      *    ]       1      optionalEnd()
1547      *    p..p    1..n   padNext(n)
1548      * </pre>
1549      * <p>
1550      * Any sequence of letters not specified above, unrecognized letter or
1551      * reserved character will throw an exception.
1552      * Future versions may add to the set of patterns.
1553      * It is recommended to use single quotes around all characters that you want
1554      * to output directly to ensure that future changes do not break your application.
1555      * <p>
1556      * Note that the pattern string is similar, but not identical, to
1557      * {@link java.text.SimpleDateFormat SimpleDateFormat}.
1558      * The pattern string is also similar, but not identical, to that defined by the
1559      * Unicode Common Locale Data Repository (CLDR/LDML).
1560      * Pattern letters 'X' and 'u' are aligned with Unicode CLDR/LDML.
1561      * By contrast, {@code SimpleDateFormat} uses 'u' for the numeric day of week.
1562      * Pattern letters 'y' and 'Y' parse years of two digits and more than 4 digits differently.
1563      * Pattern letters 'n', 'A', 'N', and 'p' are added.
1564      * Number types will reject large numbers.
1565      *
1566      * @param pattern  the pattern to add, not null
1567      * @return this, for chaining, not null
1568      * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the pattern is invalid
1569      */
1570     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder appendPattern(String pattern) {
1571         Objects.requireNonNull(pattern, "pattern");
1572         parsePattern(pattern);
1573         return this;
1574     }
1575 
1576     private void parsePattern(String pattern) {
1577         for (int pos = 0; pos < pattern.length(); pos++) {
1578             char cur = pattern.charAt(pos);
1579             if ((cur >= 'A' && cur <= 'Z') || (cur >= 'a' && cur <= 'z')) {
1580                 int start = pos++;
1581                 for ( ; pos < pattern.length() && pattern.charAt(pos) == cur; pos++);  // short loop
1582                 int count = pos - start;
1583                 // padding
1584                 if (cur == 'p') {
1585                     int pad = 0;
1586                     if (pos < pattern.length()) {
1587                         cur = pattern.charAt(pos);
1588                         if ((cur >= 'A' && cur <= 'Z') || (cur >= 'a' && cur <= 'z')) {
1589                             pad = count;
1590                             start = pos++;
1591                             for ( ; pos < pattern.length() && pattern.charAt(pos) == cur; pos++);  // short loop
1592                             count = pos - start;
1593                         }
1594                     }
1595                     if (pad == 0) {
1596                         throw new IllegalArgumentException(
1597                                 "Pad letter 'p' must be followed by valid pad pattern: " + pattern);
1598                     }
1599                     padNext(pad); // pad and continue parsing
1600                 }
1601                 // main rules
1602                 TemporalField field = FIELD_MAP.get(cur);
1603                 if (field != null) {
1604                     parseField(cur, count, field);
1605                 } else if (cur == 'z') {
1606                     if (count > 4) {
1607                         throw new IllegalArgumentException("Too many pattern letters: " + cur);
1608                     } else if (count == 4) {
1609                         appendZoneText(TextStyle.FULL);
1610                     } else {
1611                         appendZoneText(TextStyle.SHORT);
1612                     }
1613                 } else if (cur == 'V') {
1614                     if (count != 2) {
1615                         throw new IllegalArgumentException("Pattern letter count must be 2: " + cur);
1616                     }
1617                     appendZoneId();
1618                 } else if (cur == 'Z') {
1619                     if (count < 4) {
1620                         appendOffset("+HHMM", "+0000");
1621                     } else if (count == 4) {
1622                         appendLocalizedOffset(TextStyle.FULL);
1623                     } else if (count == 5) {
1624                         appendOffset("+HH:MM:ss","Z");
1625                     } else {
1626                         throw new IllegalArgumentException("Too many pattern letters: " + cur);
1627                     }
1628                 } else if (cur == 'O') {
1629                     if (count == 1) {
1630                         appendLocalizedOffset(TextStyle.SHORT);
1631                     } else if (count == 4) {
1632                         appendLocalizedOffset(TextStyle.FULL);
1633                     } else {
1634                         throw new IllegalArgumentException("Pattern letter count must be 1 or 4: " + cur);
1635                     }
1636                 } else if (cur == 'X') {
1637                     if (count > 5) {
1638                         throw new IllegalArgumentException("Too many pattern letters: " + cur);
1639                     }
1640                     appendOffset(OffsetIdPrinterParser.PATTERNS[count + (count == 1 ? 0 : 1)], "Z");
1641                 } else if (cur == 'x') {
1642                     if (count > 5) {
1643                         throw new IllegalArgumentException("Too many pattern letters: " + cur);
1644                     }
1645                     String zero = (count == 1 ? "+00" : (count % 2 == 0 ? "+0000" : "+00:00"));
1646                     appendOffset(OffsetIdPrinterParser.PATTERNS[count + (count == 1 ? 0 : 1)], zero);
1647                 } else if (cur == 'W') {
1648                     // Fields defined by Locale
1649                     if (count > 1) {
1650                         throw new IllegalArgumentException("Too many pattern letters: " + cur);
1651                     }
1652                     appendInternal(new WeekBasedFieldPrinterParser(cur, count));
1653                 } else if (cur == 'w') {
1654                     // Fields defined by Locale
1655                     if (count > 2) {
1656                         throw new IllegalArgumentException("Too many pattern letters: " + cur);
1657                     }
1658                     appendInternal(new WeekBasedFieldPrinterParser(cur, count));
1659                 } else if (cur == 'Y') {
1660                     // Fields defined by Locale
1661                     appendInternal(new WeekBasedFieldPrinterParser(cur, count));
1662                 } else {
1663                     throw new IllegalArgumentException("Unknown pattern letter: " + cur);
1664                 }
1665                 pos--;
1666 
1667             } else if (cur == '\'') {
1668                 // parse literals
1669                 int start = pos++;
1670                 for ( ; pos < pattern.length(); pos++) {
1671                     if (pattern.charAt(pos) == '\'') {
1672                         if (pos + 1 < pattern.length() && pattern.charAt(pos + 1) == '\'') {
1673                             pos++;
1674                         } else {
1675                             break;  // end of literal
1676                         }
1677                     }
1678                 }
1679                 if (pos >= pattern.length()) {
1680                     throw new IllegalArgumentException("Pattern ends with an incomplete string literal: " + pattern);
1681                 }
1682                 String str = pattern.substring(start + 1, pos);
1683                 if (str.length() == 0) {
1684                     appendLiteral('\'');
1685                 } else {
1686                     appendLiteral(str.replace("''", "'"));
1687                 }
1688 
1689             } else if (cur == '[') {
1690                 optionalStart();
1691 
1692             } else if (cur == ']') {
1693                 if (active.parent == null) {
1694                     throw new IllegalArgumentException("Pattern invalid as it contains ] without previous [");
1695                 }
1696                 optionalEnd();
1697 
1698             } else if (cur == '{' || cur == '}' || cur == '#') {
1699                 throw new IllegalArgumentException("Pattern includes reserved character: '" + cur + "'");
1700             } else {
1701                 appendLiteral(cur);
1702             }
1703         }
1704     }
1705 
1706     @SuppressWarnings("fallthrough")
1707     private void parseField(char cur, int count, TemporalField field) {
1708         boolean standalone = false;
1709         switch (cur) {
1710             case 'u':
1711             case 'y':
1712                 if (count == 2) {
1713                     appendValueReduced(field, 2, 2, ReducedPrinterParser.BASE_DATE);
1714                 } else if (count < 4) {
1715                     appendValue(field, count, 19, SignStyle.NORMAL);
1716                 } else {
1717                     appendValue(field, count, 19, SignStyle.EXCEEDS_PAD);
1718                 }
1719                 break;
1720             case 'c':
1721                 if (count == 2) {
1722                     throw new IllegalArgumentException("Invalid pattern \"cc\"");
1723                 }
1724                 /*fallthrough*/
1725             case 'L':
1726             case 'q':
1727                 standalone = true;
1728                 /*fallthrough*/
1729             case 'M':
1730             case 'Q':
1731             case 'E':
1732             case 'e':
1733                 switch (count) {
1734                     case 1:
1735                     case 2:
1736                         if (cur == 'c' || cur == 'e') {
1737                             appendInternal(new WeekBasedFieldPrinterParser(cur, count));
1738                         } else if (cur == 'E') {
1739                             appendText(field, TextStyle.SHORT);
1740                         } else {
1741                             if (count == 1) {
1742                                 appendValue(field);
1743                             } else {
1744                                 appendValue(field, 2);
1745                             }
1746                         }
1747                         break;
1748                     case 3:
1749                         appendText(field, standalone ? TextStyle.SHORT_STANDALONE : TextStyle.SHORT);
1750                         break;
1751                     case 4:
1752                         appendText(field, standalone ? TextStyle.FULL_STANDALONE : TextStyle.FULL);
1753                         break;
1754                     case 5:
1755                         appendText(field, standalone ? TextStyle.NARROW_STANDALONE : TextStyle.NARROW);
1756                         break;
1757                     default:
1758                         throw new IllegalArgumentException("Too many pattern letters: " + cur);
1759                 }
1760                 break;
1761             case 'a':
1762                 if (count == 1) {
1763                     appendText(field, TextStyle.SHORT);
1764                 } else {
1765                     throw new IllegalArgumentException("Too many pattern letters: " + cur);
1766                 }
1767                 break;
1768             case 'G':
1769                 switch (count) {
1770                     case 1:
1771                     case 2:
1772                     case 3:
1773                         appendText(field, TextStyle.SHORT);
1774                         break;
1775                     case 4:
1776                         appendText(field, TextStyle.FULL);
1777                         break;
1778                     case 5:
1779                         appendText(field, TextStyle.NARROW);
1780                         break;
1781                     default:
1782                         throw new IllegalArgumentException("Too many pattern letters: " + cur);
1783                 }
1784                 break;
1785             case 'S':
1786                 appendFraction(NANO_OF_SECOND, count, count, false);
1787                 break;
1788             case 'F':
1789                 if (count == 1) {
1790                     appendValue(field);
1791                 } else {
1792                     throw new IllegalArgumentException("Too many pattern letters: " + cur);
1793                 }
1794                 break;
1795             case 'd':
1796             case 'h':
1797             case 'H':
1798             case 'k':
1799             case 'K':
1800             case 'm':
1801             case 's':
1802                 if (count == 1) {
1803                     appendValue(field);
1804                 } else if (count == 2) {
1805                     appendValue(field, count);
1806                 } else {
1807                     throw new IllegalArgumentException("Too many pattern letters: " + cur);
1808                 }
1809                 break;
1810             case 'D':
1811                 if (count == 1) {
1812                     appendValue(field);
1813                 } else if (count <= 3) {
1814                     appendValue(field, count);
1815                 } else {
1816                     throw new IllegalArgumentException("Too many pattern letters: " + cur);
1817                 }
1818                 break;
1819             default:
1820                 if (count == 1) {
1821                     appendValue(field);
1822                 } else {
1823                     appendValue(field, count);
1824                 }
1825                 break;
1826         }
1827     }
1828 
1829     /** Map of letters to fields. */
1830     private static final Map<Character, TemporalField> FIELD_MAP = new HashMap<>();
1831     static {
1832         // SDF = SimpleDateFormat
1833         FIELD_MAP.put('G', ChronoField.ERA);                       // SDF, LDML (different to both for 1/2 chars)
1834         FIELD_MAP.put('y', ChronoField.YEAR_OF_ERA);               // SDF, LDML
1835         FIELD_MAP.put('u', ChronoField.YEAR);                      // LDML (different in SDF)
1836         FIELD_MAP.put('Q', IsoFields.QUARTER_OF_YEAR);             // LDML (removed quarter from 310)
1837         FIELD_MAP.put('q', IsoFields.QUARTER_OF_YEAR);             // LDML (stand-alone)
1838         FIELD_MAP.put('M', ChronoField.MONTH_OF_YEAR);             // SDF, LDML
1839         FIELD_MAP.put('L', ChronoField.MONTH_OF_YEAR);             // SDF, LDML (stand-alone)
1840         FIELD_MAP.put('D', ChronoField.DAY_OF_YEAR);               // SDF, LDML
1841         FIELD_MAP.put('d', ChronoField.DAY_OF_MONTH);              // SDF, LDML
1842         FIELD_MAP.put('F', ChronoField.ALIGNED_DAY_OF_WEEK_IN_MONTH);  // SDF, LDML
1843         FIELD_MAP.put('E', ChronoField.DAY_OF_WEEK);               // SDF, LDML (different to both for 1/2 chars)
1844         FIELD_MAP.put('c', ChronoField.DAY_OF_WEEK);               // LDML (stand-alone)
1845         FIELD_MAP.put('e', ChronoField.DAY_OF_WEEK);               // LDML (needs localized week number)
1846         FIELD_MAP.put('a', ChronoField.AMPM_OF_DAY);               // SDF, LDML
1847         FIELD_MAP.put('H', ChronoField.HOUR_OF_DAY);               // SDF, LDML
1848         FIELD_MAP.put('k', ChronoField.CLOCK_HOUR_OF_DAY);         // SDF, LDML
1849         FIELD_MAP.put('K', ChronoField.HOUR_OF_AMPM);              // SDF, LDML
1850         FIELD_MAP.put('h', ChronoField.CLOCK_HOUR_OF_AMPM);        // SDF, LDML
1851         FIELD_MAP.put('m', ChronoField.MINUTE_OF_HOUR);            // SDF, LDML
1852         FIELD_MAP.put('s', ChronoField.SECOND_OF_MINUTE);          // SDF, LDML
1853         FIELD_MAP.put('S', ChronoField.NANO_OF_SECOND);            // LDML (SDF uses milli-of-second number)
1854         FIELD_MAP.put('A', ChronoField.MILLI_OF_DAY);              // LDML
1855         FIELD_MAP.put('n', ChronoField.NANO_OF_SECOND);            // 310 (proposed for LDML)
1856         FIELD_MAP.put('N', ChronoField.NANO_OF_DAY);               // 310 (proposed for LDML)
1857         // 310 - z - time-zone names, matches LDML and SimpleDateFormat 1 to 4
1858         // 310 - Z - matches SimpleDateFormat and LDML
1859         // 310 - V - time-zone id, matches LDML
1860         // 310 - p - prefix for padding
1861         // 310 - X - matches LDML, almost matches SDF for 1, exact match 2&3, extended 4&5
1862         // 310 - x - matches LDML
1863         // 310 - w, W, and Y are localized forms matching LDML
1864         // LDML - U - cycle year name, not supported by 310 yet
1865         // LDML - l - deprecated
1866         // LDML - j - not relevant
1867         // LDML - g - modified-julian-day
1868         // LDML - v,V - extended time-zone names
1869     }
1870 
1871     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
1872     /**
1873      * Causes the next added printer/parser to pad to a fixed width using a space.
1874      * <p>
1875      * This padding will pad to a fixed width using spaces.
1876      * <p>
1877      * During formatting, the decorated element will be output and then padded
1878      * to the specified width. An exception will be thrown during formatting if
1879      * the pad width is exceeded.
1880      * <p>
1881      * During parsing, the padding and decorated element are parsed.
1882      * If parsing is lenient, then the pad width is treated as a maximum.
1883      * If parsing is case insensitive, then the pad character is matched ignoring case.
1884      * The padding is parsed greedily. Thus, if the decorated element starts with
1885      * the pad character, it will not be parsed.
1886      *
1887      * @param padWidth  the pad width, 1 or greater
1888      * @return this, for chaining, not null
1889      * @throws IllegalArgumentException if pad width is too small
1890      */
1891     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder padNext(int padWidth) {
1892         return padNext(padWidth, ' ');
1893     }
1894 
1895     /**
1896      * Causes the next added printer/parser to pad to a fixed width.
1897      * <p>
1898      * This padding is intended for padding other than zero-padding.
1899      * Zero-padding should be achieved using the appendValue methods.
1900      * <p>
1901      * During formatting, the decorated element will be output and then padded
1902      * to the specified width. An exception will be thrown during formatting if
1903      * the pad width is exceeded.
1904      * <p>
1905      * During parsing, the padding and decorated element are parsed.
1906      * If parsing is lenient, then the pad width is treated as a maximum.
1907      * If parsing is case insensitive, then the pad character is matched ignoring case.
1908      * The padding is parsed greedily. Thus, if the decorated element starts with
1909      * the pad character, it will not be parsed.
1910      *
1911      * @param padWidth  the pad width, 1 or greater
1912      * @param padChar  the pad character
1913      * @return this, for chaining, not null
1914      * @throws IllegalArgumentException if pad width is too small
1915      */
1916     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder padNext(int padWidth, char padChar) {
1917         if (padWidth < 1) {
1918             throw new IllegalArgumentException("The pad width must be at least one but was " + padWidth);
1919         }
1920         active.padNextWidth = padWidth;
1921         active.padNextChar = padChar;
1922         active.valueParserIndex = -1;
1923         return this;
1924     }
1925 
1926     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
1927     /**
1928      * Mark the start of an optional section.
1929      * <p>
1930      * The output of formatting can include optional sections, which may be nested.
1931      * An optional section is started by calling this method and ended by calling
1932      * {@link #optionalEnd()} or by ending the build process.
1933      * <p>
1934      * All elements in the optional section are treated as optional.
1935      * During formatting, the section is only output if data is available in the
1936      * {@code TemporalAccessor} for all the elements in the section.
1937      * During parsing, the whole section may be missing from the parsed string.
1938      * <p>
1939      * For example, consider a builder setup as
1940      * {@code builder.appendValue(HOUR_OF_DAY,2).optionalStart().appendValue(MINUTE_OF_HOUR,2)}.
1941      * The optional section ends automatically at the end of the builder.
1942      * During formatting, the minute will only be output if its value can be obtained from the date-time.
1943      * During parsing, the input will be successfully parsed whether the minute is present or not.
1944      *
1945      * @return this, for chaining, not null
1946      */
1947     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder optionalStart() {
1948         active.valueParserIndex = -1;
1949         active = new DateTimeFormatterBuilder(active, true);
1950         return this;
1951     }
1952 
1953     /**
1954      * Ends an optional section.
1955      * <p>
1956      * The output of formatting can include optional sections, which may be nested.
1957      * An optional section is started by calling {@link #optionalStart()} and ended
1958      * using this method (or at the end of the builder).
1959      * <p>
1960      * Calling this method without having previously called {@code optionalStart}
1961      * will throw an exception.
1962      * Calling this method immediately after calling {@code optionalStart} has no effect
1963      * on the formatter other than ending the (empty) optional section.
1964      * <p>
1965      * All elements in the optional section are treated as optional.
1966      * During formatting, the section is only output if data is available in the
1967      * {@code TemporalAccessor} for all the elements in the section.
1968      * During parsing, the whole section may be missing from the parsed string.
1969      * <p>
1970      * For example, consider a builder setup as
1971      * {@code builder.appendValue(HOUR_OF_DAY,2).optionalStart().appendValue(MINUTE_OF_HOUR,2).optionalEnd()}.
1972      * During formatting, the minute will only be output if its value can be obtained from the date-time.
1973      * During parsing, the input will be successfully parsed whether the minute is present or not.
1974      *
1975      * @return this, for chaining, not null
1976      * @throws IllegalStateException if there was no previous call to {@code optionalStart}
1977      */
1978     public DateTimeFormatterBuilder optionalEnd() {
1979         if (active.parent == null) {
1980             throw new IllegalStateException("Cannot call optionalEnd() as there was no previous call to optionalStart()");
1981         }
1982         if (active.printerParsers.size() > 0) {
1983             CompositePrinterParser cpp = new CompositePrinterParser(active.printerParsers, active.optional);
1984             active = active.parent;
1985             appendInternal(cpp);
1986         } else {
1987             active = active.parent;
1988         }
1989         return this;
1990     }
1991 
1992     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
1993     /**
1994      * Appends a printer and/or parser to the internal list handling padding.
1995      *
1996      * @param pp  the printer-parser to add, not null
1997      * @return the index into the active parsers list
1998      */
1999     private int appendInternal(DateTimePrinterParser pp) {
2000         Objects.requireNonNull(pp, "pp");
2001         if (active.padNextWidth > 0) {
2002             if (pp != null) {
2003                 pp = new PadPrinterParserDecorator(pp, active.padNextWidth, active.padNextChar);
2004             }
2005             active.padNextWidth = 0;
2006             active.padNextChar = 0;
2007         }
2008         active.printerParsers.add(pp);
2009         active.valueParserIndex = -1;
2010         return active.printerParsers.size() - 1;
2011     }
2012 
2013     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
2014     /**
2015      * Completes this builder by creating the {@code DateTimeFormatter}
2016      * using the default locale.
2017      * <p>
2018      * This will create a formatter with the {@linkplain Locale#getDefault(Locale.Category) default FORMAT locale}.
2019      * Numbers will be printed and parsed using the standard DecimalStyle.
2020      * The resolver style will be {@link ResolverStyle#SMART SMART}.
2021      * <p>
2022      * Calling this method will end any open optional sections by repeatedly
2023      * calling {@link #optionalEnd()} before creating the formatter.
2024      * <p>
2025      * This builder can still be used after creating the formatter if desired,
2026      * although the state may have been changed by calls to {@code optionalEnd}.
2027      *
2028      * @return the created formatter, not null
2029      */
2030     public DateTimeFormatter toFormatter() {
2031         return toFormatter(Locale.getDefault(Locale.Category.FORMAT));
2032     }
2033 
2034     /**
2035      * Completes this builder by creating the {@code DateTimeFormatter}
2036      * using the specified locale.
2037      * <p>
2038      * This will create a formatter with the specified locale.
2039      * Numbers will be printed and parsed using the standard DecimalStyle.
2040      * The resolver style will be {@link ResolverStyle#SMART SMART}.
2041      * <p>
2042      * Calling this method will end any open optional sections by repeatedly
2043      * calling {@link #optionalEnd()} before creating the formatter.
2044      * <p>
2045      * This builder can still be used after creating the formatter if desired,
2046      * although the state may have been changed by calls to {@code optionalEnd}.
2047      *
2048      * @param locale  the locale to use for formatting, not null
2049      * @return the created formatter, not null
2050      */
2051     public DateTimeFormatter toFormatter(Locale locale) {
2052         return toFormatter(locale, ResolverStyle.SMART, null);
2053     }
2054 
2055     /**
2056      * Completes this builder by creating the formatter.
2057      * This uses the default locale.
2058      *
2059      * @param resolverStyle  the resolver style to use, not null
2060      * @return the created formatter, not null
2061      */
2062     DateTimeFormatter toFormatter(ResolverStyle resolverStyle, Chronology chrono) {
2063         return toFormatter(Locale.getDefault(Locale.Category.FORMAT), resolverStyle, chrono);
2064     }
2065 
2066     /**
2067      * Completes this builder by creating the formatter.
2068      *
2069      * @param locale  the locale to use for formatting, not null
2070      * @param chrono  the chronology to use, may be null
2071      * @return the created formatter, not null
2072      */
2073     private DateTimeFormatter toFormatter(Locale locale, ResolverStyle resolverStyle, Chronology chrono) {
2074         Objects.requireNonNull(locale, "locale");
2075         while (active.parent != null) {
2076             optionalEnd();
2077         }
2078         CompositePrinterParser pp = new CompositePrinterParser(printerParsers, false);
2079         return new DateTimeFormatter(pp, locale, DecimalStyle.STANDARD,
2080                 resolverStyle, null, chrono, null);
2081     }
2082 
2083     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
2084     /**
2085      * Strategy for formatting/parsing date-time information.
2086      * <p>
2087      * The printer may format any part, or the whole, of the input date-time object.
2088      * Typically, a complete format is constructed from a number of smaller
2089      * units, each outputting a single field.
2090      * <p>
2091      * The parser may parse any piece of text from the input, storing the result
2092      * in the context. Typically, each individual parser will just parse one
2093      * field, such as the day-of-month, storing the value in the context.
2094      * Once the parse is complete, the caller will then resolve the parsed values
2095      * to create the desired object, such as a {@code LocalDate}.
2096      * <p>
2097      * The parse position will be updated during the parse. Parsing will start at
2098      * the specified index and the return value specifies the new parse position
2099      * for the next parser. If an error occurs, the returned index will be negative
2100      * and will have the error position encoded using the complement operator.
2101      *
2102      * @implSpec
2103      * This interface must be implemented with care to ensure other classes operate correctly.
2104      * All implementations that can be instantiated must be final, immutable and thread-safe.
2105      * <p>
2106      * The context is not a thread-safe object and a new instance will be created
2107      * for each format that occurs. The context must not be stored in an instance
2108      * variable or shared with any other threads.
2109      */
2110     interface DateTimePrinterParser {
2111 
2112         /**
2113          * Prints the date-time object to the buffer.
2114          * <p>
2115          * The context holds information to use during the format.
2116          * It also contains the date-time information to be printed.
2117          * <p>
2118          * The buffer must not be mutated beyond the content controlled by the implementation.
2119          *
2120          * @param context  the context to format using, not null
2121          * @param buf  the buffer to append to, not null
2122          * @return false if unable to query the value from the date-time, true otherwise
2123          * @throws DateTimeException if the date-time cannot be printed successfully
2124          */
2125         boolean format(DateTimePrintContext context, StringBuilder buf);
2126 
2127         /**
2128          * Parses text into date-time information.
2129          * <p>
2130          * The context holds information to use during the parse.
2131          * It is also used to store the parsed date-time information.
2132          *
2133          * @param context  the context to use and parse into, not null
2134          * @param text  the input text to parse, not null
2135          * @param position  the position to start parsing at, from 0 to the text length
2136          * @return the new parse position, where negative means an error with the
2137          *  error position encoded using the complement ~ operator
2138          * @throws NullPointerException if the context or text is null
2139          * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException if the position is invalid
2140          */
2141         int parse(DateTimeParseContext context, CharSequence text, int position);
2142     }
2143 
2144     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
2145     /**
2146      * Composite printer and parser.
2147      */
2148     static final class CompositePrinterParser implements DateTimePrinterParser {
2149         private final DateTimePrinterParser[] printerParsers;
2150         private final boolean optional;
2151 
2152         CompositePrinterParser(List<DateTimePrinterParser> printerParsers, boolean optional) {
2153             this(printerParsers.toArray(new DateTimePrinterParser[printerParsers.size()]), optional);
2154         }
2155 
2156         CompositePrinterParser(DateTimePrinterParser[] printerParsers, boolean optional) {
2157             this.printerParsers = printerParsers;
2158             this.optional = optional;
2159         }
2160 
2161         /**
2162          * Returns a copy of this printer-parser with the optional flag changed.
2163          *
2164          * @param optional  the optional flag to set in the copy
2165          * @return the new printer-parser, not null
2166          */
2167         public CompositePrinterParser withOptional(boolean optional) {
2168             if (optional == this.optional) {
2169                 return this;
2170             }
2171             return new CompositePrinterParser(printerParsers, optional);
2172         }
2173 
2174         @Override
2175         public boolean format(DateTimePrintContext context, StringBuilder buf) {
2176             int length = buf.length();
2177             if (optional) {
2178                 context.startOptional();
2179             }
2180             try {
2181                 for (DateTimePrinterParser pp : printerParsers) {
2182                     if (pp.format(context, buf) == false) {
2183                         buf.setLength(length);  // reset buffer
2184                         return true;
2185                     }
2186                 }
2187             } finally {
2188                 if (optional) {
2189                     context.endOptional();
2190                 }
2191             }
2192             return true;
2193         }
2194 
2195         @Override
2196         public int parse(DateTimeParseContext context, CharSequence text, int position) {
2197             if (optional) {
2198                 context.startOptional();
2199                 int pos = position;
2200                 for (DateTimePrinterParser pp : printerParsers) {
2201                     pos = pp.parse(context, text, pos);
2202                     if (pos < 0) {
2203                         context.endOptional(false);
2204                         return position;  // return original position
2205                     }
2206                 }
2207                 context.endOptional(true);
2208                 return pos;
2209             } else {
2210                 for (DateTimePrinterParser pp : printerParsers) {
2211                     position = pp.parse(context, text, position);
2212                     if (position < 0) {
2213                         break;
2214                     }
2215                 }
2216                 return position;
2217             }
2218         }
2219 
2220         @Override
2221         public String toString() {
2222             StringBuilder buf = new StringBuilder();
2223             if (printerParsers != null) {
2224                 buf.append(optional ? "[" : "(");
2225                 for (DateTimePrinterParser pp : printerParsers) {
2226                     buf.append(pp);
2227                 }
2228                 buf.append(optional ? "]" : ")");
2229             }
2230             return buf.toString();
2231         }
2232     }
2233 
2234     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
2235     /**
2236      * Pads the output to a fixed width.
2237      */
2238     static final class PadPrinterParserDecorator implements DateTimePrinterParser {
2239         private final DateTimePrinterParser printerParser;
2240         private final int padWidth;
2241         private final char padChar;
2242 
2243         /**
2244          * Constructor.
2245          *
2246          * @param printerParser  the printer, not null
2247          * @param padWidth  the width to pad to, 1 or greater
2248          * @param padChar  the pad character
2249          */
2250         PadPrinterParserDecorator(DateTimePrinterParser printerParser, int padWidth, char padChar) {
2251             // input checked by DateTimeFormatterBuilder
2252             this.printerParser = printerParser;
2253             this.padWidth = padWidth;
2254             this.padChar = padChar;
2255         }
2256 
2257         @Override
2258         public boolean format(DateTimePrintContext context, StringBuilder buf) {
2259             int preLen = buf.length();
2260             if (printerParser.format(context, buf) == false) {
2261                 return false;
2262             }
2263             int len = buf.length() - preLen;
2264             if (len > padWidth) {
2265                 throw new DateTimeException(
2266                     "Cannot print as output of " + len + " characters exceeds pad width of " + padWidth);
2267             }
2268             for (int i = 0; i < padWidth - len; i++) {
2269                 buf.insert(preLen, padChar);
2270             }
2271             return true;
2272         }
2273 
2274         @Override
2275         public int parse(DateTimeParseContext context, CharSequence text, int position) {
2276             // cache context before changed by decorated parser
2277             final boolean strict = context.isStrict();
2278             // parse
2279             if (position > text.length()) {
2280                 throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException();
2281             }
2282             if (position == text.length()) {
2283                 return ~position;  // no more characters in the string
2284             }
2285             int endPos = position + padWidth;
2286             if (endPos > text.length()) {
2287                 if (strict) {
2288                     return ~position;  // not enough characters in the string to meet the parse width
2289                 }
2290                 endPos = text.length();
2291             }
2292             int pos = position;
2293             while (pos < endPos && context.charEquals(text.charAt(pos), padChar)) {
2294                 pos++;
2295             }
2296             text = text.subSequence(0, endPos);
2297             int resultPos = printerParser.parse(context, text, pos);
2298             if (resultPos != endPos && strict) {
2299                 return ~(position + pos);  // parse of decorated field didn't parse to the end
2300             }
2301             return resultPos;
2302         }
2303 
2304         @Override
2305         public String toString() {
2306             return "Pad(" + printerParser + "," + padWidth + (padChar == ' ' ? ")" : ",'" + padChar + "')");
2307         }
2308     }
2309 
2310     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
2311     /**
2312      * Enumeration to apply simple parse settings.
2313      */
2314     static enum SettingsParser implements DateTimePrinterParser {
2315         SENSITIVE,
2316         INSENSITIVE,
2317         STRICT,
2318         LENIENT;
2319 
2320         @Override
2321         public boolean format(DateTimePrintContext context, StringBuilder buf) {
2322             return true;  // nothing to do here
2323         }
2324 
2325         @Override
2326         public int parse(DateTimeParseContext context, CharSequence text, int position) {
2327             // using ordinals to avoid javac synthetic inner class
2328             switch (ordinal()) {
2329                 case 0: context.setCaseSensitive(true); break;
2330                 case 1: context.setCaseSensitive(false); break;
2331                 case 2: context.setStrict(true); break;
2332                 case 3: context.setStrict(false); break;
2333             }
2334             return position;
2335         }
2336 
2337         @Override
2338         public String toString() {
2339             // using ordinals to avoid javac synthetic inner class
2340             switch (ordinal()) {
2341                 case 0: return "ParseCaseSensitive(true)";
2342                 case 1: return "ParseCaseSensitive(false)";
2343                 case 2: return "ParseStrict(true)";
2344                 case 3: return "ParseStrict(false)";
2345             }
2346             throw new IllegalStateException("Unreachable");
2347         }
2348     }
2349 
2350     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
2351     /**
2352      * Defaults a value into the parse if not currently present.
2353      */
2354     static class DefaultValueParser implements DateTimePrinterParser {
2355         private final TemporalField field;
2356         private final long value;
2357 
2358         DefaultValueParser(TemporalField field, long value) {
2359             this.field = field;
2360             this.value = value;
2361         }
2362 
2363         public boolean format(DateTimePrintContext context, StringBuilder buf) {
2364             return true;
2365         }
2366 
2367         public int parse(DateTimeParseContext context, CharSequence text, int position) {
2368             if (context.getParsed(field) == null) {
2369                 context.setParsedField(field, value, position, position);
2370             }
2371             return position;
2372         }
2373     }
2374 
2375     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
2376     /**
2377      * Prints or parses a character literal.
2378      */
2379     static final class CharLiteralPrinterParser implements DateTimePrinterParser {
2380         private final char literal;
2381 
2382         CharLiteralPrinterParser(char literal) {
2383             this.literal = literal;
2384         }
2385 
2386         @Override
2387         public boolean format(DateTimePrintContext context, StringBuilder buf) {
2388             buf.append(literal);
2389             return true;
2390         }
2391 
2392         @Override
2393         public int parse(DateTimeParseContext context, CharSequence text, int position) {
2394             int length = text.length();
2395             if (position == length) {
2396                 return ~position;
2397             }
2398             char ch = text.charAt(position);
2399             if (ch != literal) {
2400                 if (context.isCaseSensitive() ||
2401                         (Character.toUpperCase(ch) != Character.toUpperCase(literal) &&
2402                          Character.toLowerCase(ch) != Character.toLowerCase(literal))) {
2403                     return ~position;
2404                 }
2405             }
2406             return position + 1;
2407         }
2408 
2409         @Override
2410         public String toString() {
2411             if (literal == '\'') {
2412                 return "''";
2413             }
2414             return "'" + literal + "'";
2415         }
2416     }
2417 
2418     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
2419     /**
2420      * Prints or parses a string literal.
2421      */
2422     static final class StringLiteralPrinterParser implements DateTimePrinterParser {
2423         private final String literal;
2424 
2425         StringLiteralPrinterParser(String literal) {
2426             this.literal = literal;  // validated by caller
2427         }
2428 
2429         @Override
2430         public boolean format(DateTimePrintContext context, StringBuilder buf) {
2431             buf.append(literal);
2432             return true;
2433         }
2434 
2435         @Override
2436         public int parse(DateTimeParseContext context, CharSequence text, int position) {
2437             int length = text.length();
2438             if (position > length || position < 0) {
2439                 throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException();
2440             }
2441             if (context.subSequenceEquals(text, position, literal, 0, literal.length()) == false) {
2442                 return ~position;
2443             }
2444             return position + literal.length();
2445         }
2446 
2447         @Override
2448         public String toString() {
2449             String converted = literal.replace("'", "''");
2450             return "'" + converted + "'";
2451         }
2452     }
2453 
2454     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
2455     /**
2456      * Prints and parses a numeric date-time field with optional padding.
2457      */
2458     static class NumberPrinterParser implements DateTimePrinterParser {
2459 
2460         /**
2461          * Array of 10 to the power of n.
2462          */
2463         static final long[] EXCEED_POINTS = new long[] {
2464             0L,
2465             10L,
2466             100L,
2467             1000L,
2468             10000L,
2469             100000L,
2470             1000000L,
2471             10000000L,
2472             100000000L,
2473             1000000000L,
2474             10000000000L,
2475         };
2476 
2477         final TemporalField field;
2478         final int minWidth;
2479         final int maxWidth;
2480         private final SignStyle signStyle;
2481         final int subsequentWidth;
2482 
2483         /**
2484          * Constructor.
2485          *
2486          * @param field  the field to format, not null
2487          * @param minWidth  the minimum field width, from 1 to 19
2488          * @param maxWidth  the maximum field width, from minWidth to 19
2489          * @param signStyle  the positive/negative sign style, not null
2490          */
2491         NumberPrinterParser(TemporalField field, int minWidth, int maxWidth, SignStyle signStyle) {
2492             // validated by caller
2493             this.field = field;
2494             this.minWidth = minWidth;
2495             this.maxWidth = maxWidth;
2496             this.signStyle = signStyle;
2497             this.subsequentWidth = 0;
2498         }
2499 
2500         /**
2501          * Constructor.
2502          *
2503          * @param field  the field to format, not null
2504          * @param minWidth  the minimum field width, from 1 to 19
2505          * @param maxWidth  the maximum field width, from minWidth to 19
2506          * @param signStyle  the positive/negative sign style, not null
2507          * @param subsequentWidth  the width of subsequent non-negative numbers, 0 or greater,
2508          *  -1 if fixed width due to active adjacent parsing
2509          */
2510         protected NumberPrinterParser(TemporalField field, int minWidth, int maxWidth, SignStyle signStyle, int subsequentWidth) {
2511             // validated by caller
2512             this.field = field;
2513             this.minWidth = minWidth;
2514             this.maxWidth = maxWidth;
2515             this.signStyle = signStyle;
2516             this.subsequentWidth = subsequentWidth;
2517         }
2518 
2519         /**
2520          * Returns a new instance with fixed width flag set.
2521          *
2522          * @return a new updated printer-parser, not null
2523          */
2524         NumberPrinterParser withFixedWidth() {
2525             if (subsequentWidth == -1) {
2526                 return this;
2527             }
2528             return new NumberPrinterParser(field, minWidth, maxWidth, signStyle, -1);
2529         }
2530 
2531         /**
2532          * Returns a new instance with an updated subsequent width.
2533          *
2534          * @param subsequentWidth  the width of subsequent non-negative numbers, 0 or greater
2535          * @return a new updated printer-parser, not null
2536          */
2537         NumberPrinterParser withSubsequentWidth(int subsequentWidth) {
2538             return new NumberPrinterParser(field, minWidth, maxWidth, signStyle, this.subsequentWidth + subsequentWidth);
2539         }
2540 
2541         @Override
2542         public boolean format(DateTimePrintContext context, StringBuilder buf) {
2543             Long valueLong = context.getValue(field);
2544             if (valueLong == null) {
2545                 return false;
2546             }
2547             long value = getValue(context, valueLong);
2548             DecimalStyle decimalStyle = context.getDecimalStyle();
2549             String str = (value == Long.MIN_VALUE ? "9223372036854775808" : Long.toString(Math.abs(value)));
2550             if (str.length() > maxWidth) {
2551                 throw new DateTimeException("Field " + field +
2552                     " cannot be printed as the value " + value +
2553                     " exceeds the maximum print width of " + maxWidth);
2554             }
2555             str = decimalStyle.convertNumberToI18N(str);
2556 
2557             if (value >= 0) {
2558                 switch (signStyle) {
2559                     case EXCEEDS_PAD:
2560                         if (minWidth < 19 && value >= EXCEED_POINTS[minWidth]) {
2561                             buf.append(decimalStyle.getPositiveSign());
2562                         }
2563                         break;
2564                     case ALWAYS:
2565                         buf.append(decimalStyle.getPositiveSign());
2566                         break;
2567                 }
2568             } else {
2569                 switch (signStyle) {
2570                     case NORMAL:
2571                     case EXCEEDS_PAD:
2572                     case ALWAYS:
2573                         buf.append(decimalStyle.getNegativeSign());
2574                         break;
2575                     case NOT_NEGATIVE:
2576                         throw new DateTimeException("Field " + field +
2577                             " cannot be printed as the value " + value +
2578                             " cannot be negative according to the SignStyle");
2579                 }
2580             }
2581             for (int i = 0; i < minWidth - str.length(); i++) {
2582                 buf.append(decimalStyle.getZeroDigit());
2583             }
2584             buf.append(str);
2585             return true;
2586         }
2587 
2588         /**
2589          * Gets the value to output.
2590          *
2591          * @param context  the context
2592          * @param value  the value of the field, not null
2593          * @return the value
2594          */
2595         long getValue(DateTimePrintContext context, long value) {
2596             return value;
2597         }
2598 
2599         boolean isFixedWidth() {
2600             return subsequentWidth == -1;
2601         }
2602 
2603         @Override
2604         public int parse(DateTimeParseContext context, CharSequence text, int position) {
2605             int length = text.length();
2606             if (position == length) {
2607                 return ~position;
2608             }
2609             char sign = text.charAt(position);  // IOOBE if invalid position
2610             boolean negative = false;
2611             boolean positive = false;
2612             if (sign == context.getDecimalStyle().getPositiveSign()) {
2613                 if (signStyle.parse(true, context.isStrict(), minWidth == maxWidth) == false) {
2614                     return ~position;
2615                 }
2616                 positive = true;
2617                 position++;
2618             } else if (sign == context.getDecimalStyle().getNegativeSign()) {
2619                 if (signStyle.parse(false, context.isStrict(), minWidth == maxWidth) == false) {
2620                     return ~position;
2621                 }
2622                 negative = true;
2623                 position++;
2624             } else {
2625                 if (signStyle == SignStyle.ALWAYS && context.isStrict()) {
2626                     return ~position;
2627                 }
2628             }
2629             int effMinWidth = (context.isStrict() || isFixedWidth() ? minWidth : 1);
2630             int minEndPos = position + effMinWidth;
2631             if (minEndPos > length) {
2632                 return ~position;
2633             }
2634             int effMaxWidth = (context.isStrict() || isFixedWidth() ? maxWidth : 9) + Math.max(subsequentWidth, 0);
2635             long total = 0;
2636             BigInteger totalBig = null;
2637             int pos = position;
2638             for (int pass = 0; pass < 2; pass++) {
2639                 int maxEndPos = Math.min(pos + effMaxWidth, length);
2640                 while (pos < maxEndPos) {
2641                     char ch = text.charAt(pos++);
2642                     int digit = context.getDecimalStyle().convertToDigit(ch);
2643                     if (digit < 0) {
2644                         pos--;
2645                         if (pos < minEndPos) {
2646                             return ~position;  // need at least min width digits
2647                         }
2648                         break;
2649                     }
2650                     if ((pos - position) > 18) {
2651                         if (totalBig == null) {
2652                             totalBig = BigInteger.valueOf(total);
2653                         }
2654                         totalBig = totalBig.multiply(BigInteger.TEN).add(BigInteger.valueOf(digit));
2655                     } else {
2656                         total = total * 10 + digit;
2657                     }
2658                 }
2659                 if (subsequentWidth > 0 && pass == 0) {
2660                     // re-parse now we know the correct width
2661                     int parseLen = pos - position;
2662                     effMaxWidth = Math.max(effMinWidth, parseLen - subsequentWidth);
2663                     pos = position;
2664                     total = 0;
2665                     totalBig = null;
2666                 } else {
2667                     break;
2668                 }
2669             }
2670             if (negative) {
2671                 if (totalBig != null) {
2672                     if (totalBig.equals(BigInteger.ZERO) && context.isStrict()) {
2673                         return ~(position - 1);  // minus zero not allowed
2674                     }
2675                     totalBig = totalBig.negate();
2676                 } else {
2677                     if (total == 0 && context.isStrict()) {
2678                         return ~(position - 1);  // minus zero not allowed
2679                     }
2680                     total = -total;
2681                 }
2682             } else if (signStyle == SignStyle.EXCEEDS_PAD && context.isStrict()) {
2683                 int parseLen = pos - position;
2684                 if (positive) {
2685                     if (parseLen <= minWidth) {
2686                         return ~(position - 1);  // '+' only parsed if minWidth exceeded
2687                     }
2688                 } else {
2689                     if (parseLen > minWidth) {
2690                         return ~position;  // '+' must be parsed if minWidth exceeded
2691                     }
2692                 }
2693             }
2694             if (totalBig != null) {
2695                 if (totalBig.bitLength() > 63) {
2696                     // overflow, parse 1 less digit
2697                     totalBig = totalBig.divide(BigInteger.TEN);
2698                     pos--;
2699                 }
2700                 return setValue(context, totalBig.longValue(), position, pos);
2701             }
2702             return setValue(context, total, position, pos);
2703         }
2704 
2705         /**
2706          * Stores the value.
2707          *
2708          * @param context  the context to store into, not null
2709          * @param value  the value
2710          * @param errorPos  the position of the field being parsed
2711          * @param successPos  the position after the field being parsed
2712          * @return the new position
2713          */
2714         int setValue(DateTimeParseContext context, long value, int errorPos, int successPos) {
2715             return context.setParsedField(field, value, errorPos, successPos);
2716         }
2717 
2718         @Override
2719         public String toString() {
2720             if (minWidth == 1 && maxWidth == 19 && signStyle == SignStyle.NORMAL) {
2721                 return "Value(" + field + ")";
2722             }
2723             if (minWidth == maxWidth && signStyle == SignStyle.NOT_NEGATIVE) {
2724                 return "Value(" + field + "," + minWidth + ")";
2725             }
2726             return "Value(" + field + "," + minWidth + "," + maxWidth + "," + signStyle + ")";
2727         }
2728     }
2729 
2730     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
2731     /**
2732      * Prints and parses a reduced numeric date-time field.
2733      */
2734     static final class ReducedPrinterParser extends NumberPrinterParser {
2735         /**
2736          * The base date for reduced value parsing.
2737          */
2738         static final LocalDate BASE_DATE = LocalDate.of(2000, 1, 1);
2739 
2740         private final int baseValue;
2741         private final ChronoLocalDate baseDate;
2742 
2743         /**
2744          * Constructor.
2745          *
2746          * @param field  the field to format, validated not null
2747          * @param minWidth  the minimum field width, from 1 to 10
2748          * @param maxWidth  the maximum field width, from 1 to 10
2749          * @param baseValue  the base value
2750          * @param baseDate  the base date
2751          */
2752         ReducedPrinterParser(TemporalField field, int minWidth, int maxWidth,
2753                 int baseValue, ChronoLocalDate baseDate) {
2754             this(field, minWidth, maxWidth, baseValue, baseDate, 0);
2755             if (minWidth < 1 || minWidth > 10) {
2756                 throw new IllegalArgumentException("The minWidth must be from 1 to 10 inclusive but was " + minWidth);
2757             }
2758             if (maxWidth < 1 || maxWidth > 10) {
2759                 throw new IllegalArgumentException("The maxWidth must be from 1 to 10 inclusive but was " + minWidth);
2760             }
2761             if (maxWidth < minWidth) {
2762                 throw new IllegalArgumentException("Maximum width must exceed or equal the minimum width but " +
2763                         maxWidth + " < " + minWidth);
2764             }
2765             if (baseDate == null) {
2766                 if (field.range().isValidValue(baseValue) == false) {
2767                     throw new IllegalArgumentException("The base value must be within the range of the field");
2768                 }
2769                 if ((((long) baseValue) + EXCEED_POINTS[maxWidth]) > Integer.MAX_VALUE) {
2770                     throw new DateTimeException("Unable to add printer-parser as the range exceeds the capacity of an int");
2771                 }
2772             }
2773         }
2774 
2775         /**
2776          * Constructor.
2777          * The arguments have already been checked.
2778          *
2779          * @param field  the field to format, validated not null
2780          * @param minWidth  the minimum field width, from 1 to 10
2781          * @param maxWidth  the maximum field width, from 1 to 10
2782          * @param baseValue  the base value
2783          * @param baseDate  the base date
2784          * @param subsequentWidth the subsequentWidth for this instance
2785          */
2786         private ReducedPrinterParser(TemporalField field, int minWidth, int maxWidth,
2787                 int baseValue, ChronoLocalDate baseDate, int subsequentWidth) {
2788             super(field, minWidth, maxWidth, SignStyle.NOT_NEGATIVE, subsequentWidth);
2789             this.baseValue = baseValue;
2790             this.baseDate = baseDate;
2791         }
2792 
2793         @Override
2794         long getValue(DateTimePrintContext context, long value) {
2795             long absValue = Math.abs(value);
2796             int baseValue = this.baseValue;
2797             if (baseDate != null) {
2798                 Chronology chrono = Chronology.from(context.getTemporal());
2799                 baseValue = chrono.date(baseDate).get(field);
2800             }
2801             if (value >= baseValue && value < baseValue + EXCEED_POINTS[minWidth]) {
2802                 // Use the reduced value if it fits in minWidth
2803                 return absValue % EXCEED_POINTS[minWidth];
2804             }
2805             // Otherwise truncate to fit in maxWidth
2806             return absValue % EXCEED_POINTS[maxWidth];
2807         }
2808 
2809         @Override
2810         int setValue(DateTimeParseContext context, long value, int errorPos, int successPos) {
2811             int baseValue = this.baseValue;
2812             if (baseDate != null) {
2813                 Chronology chrono = context.getEffectiveChronology();
2814                 baseValue = chrono.date(baseDate).get(field);
2815 
2816                 // In case the Chronology is changed later, add a callback when/if it changes
2817                 final long initialValue = value;
2818                 context.addChronoChangedListener(
2819                         (_unused) ->  {
2820                             /* Repeat the set of the field using the current Chronology
2821                              * The success/error position is ignored because the value is
2822                              * intentionally being overwritten.
2823                              */
2824                             setValue(context, initialValue, errorPos, successPos);
2825                         });
2826             }
2827             int parseLen = successPos - errorPos;
2828             if (parseLen == minWidth && value >= 0) {
2829                 long range = EXCEED_POINTS[minWidth];
2830                 long lastPart = baseValue % range;
2831                 long basePart = baseValue - lastPart;
2832                 if (baseValue > 0) {
2833                     value = basePart + value;
2834                 } else {
2835                     value = basePart - value;
2836                 }
2837                 if (value < baseValue) {
2838                     value += range;
2839                 }
2840             }
2841             return context.setParsedField(field, value, errorPos, successPos);
2842         }
2843 
2844         /**
2845          * Returns a new instance with fixed width flag set.
2846          *
2847          * @return a new updated printer-parser, not null
2848          */
2849         @Override
2850         ReducedPrinterParser withFixedWidth() {
2851             if (subsequentWidth == -1) {
2852                 return this;
2853             }
2854             return new ReducedPrinterParser(field, minWidth, maxWidth, baseValue, baseDate, -1);
2855         }
2856 
2857         /**
2858          * Returns a new instance with an updated subsequent width.
2859          *
2860          * @param subsequentWidth  the width of subsequent non-negative numbers, 0 or greater
2861          * @return a new updated printer-parser, not null
2862          */
2863         @Override
2864         ReducedPrinterParser withSubsequentWidth(int subsequentWidth) {
2865             return new ReducedPrinterParser(field, minWidth, maxWidth, baseValue, baseDate,
2866                     this.subsequentWidth + subsequentWidth);
2867         }
2868 
2869         @Override
2870         public String toString() {
2871             return "ReducedValue(" + field + "," + minWidth + "," + maxWidth + "," + (baseDate != null ? baseDate : baseValue) + ")";
2872         }
2873     }
2874 
2875     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
2876     /**
2877      * Prints and parses a numeric date-time field with optional padding.
2878      */
2879     static final class FractionPrinterParser implements DateTimePrinterParser {
2880         private final TemporalField field;
2881         private final int minWidth;
2882         private final int maxWidth;
2883         private final boolean decimalPoint;
2884 
2885         /**
2886          * Constructor.
2887          *
2888          * @param field  the field to output, not null
2889          * @param minWidth  the minimum width to output, from 0 to 9
2890          * @param maxWidth  the maximum width to output, from 0 to 9
2891          * @param decimalPoint  whether to output the localized decimal point symbol
2892          */
2893         FractionPrinterParser(TemporalField field, int minWidth, int maxWidth, boolean decimalPoint) {
2894             Objects.requireNonNull(field, "field");
2895             if (field.range().isFixed() == false) {
2896                 throw new IllegalArgumentException("Field must have a fixed set of values: " + field);
2897             }
2898             if (minWidth < 0 || minWidth > 9) {
2899                 throw new IllegalArgumentException("Minimum width must be from 0 to 9 inclusive but was " + minWidth);
2900             }
2901             if (maxWidth < 1 || maxWidth > 9) {
2902                 throw new IllegalArgumentException("Maximum width must be from 1 to 9 inclusive but was " + maxWidth);
2903             }
2904             if (maxWidth < minWidth) {
2905                 throw new IllegalArgumentException("Maximum width must exceed or equal the minimum width but " +
2906                         maxWidth + " < " + minWidth);
2907             }
2908             this.field = field;
2909             this.minWidth = minWidth;
2910             this.maxWidth = maxWidth;
2911             this.decimalPoint = decimalPoint;
2912         }
2913 
2914         @Override
2915         public boolean format(DateTimePrintContext context, StringBuilder buf) {
2916             Long value = context.getValue(field);
2917             if (value == null) {
2918                 return false;
2919             }
2920             DecimalStyle decimalStyle = context.getDecimalStyle();
2921             BigDecimal fraction = convertToFraction(value);
2922             if (fraction.scale() == 0) {  // scale is zero if value is zero
2923                 if (minWidth > 0) {
2924                     if (decimalPoint) {
2925                         buf.append(decimalStyle.getDecimalSeparator());
2926                     }
2927                     for (int i = 0; i < minWidth; i++) {
2928                         buf.append(decimalStyle.getZeroDigit());
2929                     }
2930                 }
2931             } else {
2932                 int outputScale = Math.min(Math.max(fraction.scale(), minWidth), maxWidth);
2933                 fraction = fraction.setScale(outputScale, RoundingMode.FLOOR);
2934                 String str = fraction.toPlainString().substring(2);
2935                 str = decimalStyle.convertNumberToI18N(str);
2936                 if (decimalPoint) {
2937                     buf.append(decimalStyle.getDecimalSeparator());
2938                 }
2939                 buf.append(str);
2940             }
2941             return true;
2942         }
2943 
2944         @Override
2945         public int parse(DateTimeParseContext context, CharSequence text, int position) {
2946             int effectiveMin = (context.isStrict() ? minWidth : 0);
2947             int effectiveMax = (context.isStrict() ? maxWidth : 9);
2948             int length = text.length();
2949             if (position == length) {
2950                 // valid if whole field is optional, invalid if minimum width
2951                 return (effectiveMin > 0 ? ~position : position);
2952             }
2953             if (decimalPoint) {
2954                 if (text.charAt(position) != context.getDecimalStyle().getDecimalSeparator()) {
2955                     // valid if whole field is optional, invalid if minimum width
2956                     return (effectiveMin > 0 ? ~position : position);
2957                 }
2958                 position++;
2959             }
2960             int minEndPos = position + effectiveMin;
2961             if (minEndPos > length) {
2962                 return ~position;  // need at least min width digits
2963             }
2964             int maxEndPos = Math.min(position + effectiveMax, length);
2965             int total = 0;  // can use int because we are only parsing up to 9 digits
2966             int pos = position;
2967             while (pos < maxEndPos) {
2968                 char ch = text.charAt(pos++);
2969                 int digit = context.getDecimalStyle().convertToDigit(ch);
2970                 if (digit < 0) {
2971                     if (pos < minEndPos) {
2972                         return ~position;  // need at least min width digits
2973                     }
2974                     pos--;
2975                     break;
2976                 }
2977                 total = total * 10 + digit;
2978             }
2979             BigDecimal fraction = new BigDecimal(total).movePointLeft(pos - position);
2980             long value = convertFromFraction(fraction);
2981             return context.setParsedField(field, value, position, pos);
2982         }
2983 
2984         /**
2985          * Converts a value for this field to a fraction between 0 and 1.
2986          * <p>
2987          * The fractional value is between 0 (inclusive) and 1 (exclusive).
2988          * It can only be returned if the {@link java.time.temporal.TemporalField#range() value range} is fixed.
2989          * The fraction is obtained by calculation from the field range using 9 decimal
2990          * places and a rounding mode of {@link RoundingMode#FLOOR FLOOR}.
2991          * The calculation is inaccurate if the values do not run continuously from smallest to largest.
2992          * <p>
2993          * For example, the second-of-minute value of 15 would be returned as 0.25,
2994          * assuming the standard definition of 60 seconds in a minute.
2995          *
2996          * @param value  the value to convert, must be valid for this rule
2997          * @return the value as a fraction within the range, from 0 to 1, not null
2998          * @throws DateTimeException if the value cannot be converted to a fraction
2999          */
3000         private BigDecimal convertToFraction(long value) {
3001             ValueRange range = field.range();
3002             range.checkValidValue(value, field);
3003             BigDecimal minBD = BigDecimal.valueOf(range.getMinimum());
3004             BigDecimal rangeBD = BigDecimal.valueOf(range.getMaximum()).subtract(minBD).add(BigDecimal.ONE);
3005             BigDecimal valueBD = BigDecimal.valueOf(value).subtract(minBD);
3006             BigDecimal fraction = valueBD.divide(rangeBD, 9, RoundingMode.FLOOR);
3007             // stripTrailingZeros bug
3008             return fraction.compareTo(BigDecimal.ZERO) == 0 ? BigDecimal.ZERO : fraction.stripTrailingZeros();
3009         }
3010 
3011         /**
3012          * Converts a fraction from 0 to 1 for this field to a value.
3013          * <p>
3014          * The fractional value must be between 0 (inclusive) and 1 (exclusive).
3015          * It can only be returned if the {@link java.time.temporal.TemporalField#range() value range} is fixed.
3016          * The value is obtained by calculation from the field range and a rounding
3017          * mode of {@link RoundingMode#FLOOR FLOOR}.
3018          * The calculation is inaccurate if the values do not run continuously from smallest to largest.
3019          * <p>
3020          * For example, the fractional second-of-minute of 0.25 would be converted to 15,
3021          * assuming the standard definition of 60 seconds in a minute.
3022          *
3023          * @param fraction  the fraction to convert, not null
3024          * @return the value of the field, valid for this rule
3025          * @throws DateTimeException if the value cannot be converted
3026          */
3027         private long convertFromFraction(BigDecimal fraction) {
3028             ValueRange range = field.range();
3029             BigDecimal minBD = BigDecimal.valueOf(range.getMinimum());
3030             BigDecimal rangeBD = BigDecimal.valueOf(range.getMaximum()).subtract(minBD).add(BigDecimal.ONE);
3031             BigDecimal valueBD = fraction.multiply(rangeBD).setScale(0, RoundingMode.FLOOR).add(minBD);
3032             return valueBD.longValueExact();
3033         }
3034 
3035         @Override
3036         public String toString() {
3037             String decimal = (decimalPoint ? ",DecimalPoint" : "");
3038             return "Fraction(" + field + "," + minWidth + "," + maxWidth + decimal + ")";
3039         }
3040     }
3041 
3042     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
3043     /**
3044      * Prints or parses field text.
3045      */
3046     static final class TextPrinterParser implements DateTimePrinterParser {
3047         private final TemporalField field;
3048         private final TextStyle textStyle;
3049         private final DateTimeTextProvider provider;
3050         /**
3051          * The cached number printer parser.
3052          * Immutable and volatile, so no synchronization needed.
3053          */
3054         private volatile NumberPrinterParser numberPrinterParser;
3055 
3056         /**
3057          * Constructor.
3058          *
3059          * @param field  the field to output, not null
3060          * @param textStyle  the text style, not null
3061          * @param provider  the text provider, not null
3062          */
3063         TextPrinterParser(TemporalField field, TextStyle textStyle, DateTimeTextProvider provider) {
3064             // validated by caller
3065             this.field = field;
3066             this.textStyle = textStyle;
3067             this.provider = provider;
3068         }
3069 
3070         @Override
3071         public boolean format(DateTimePrintContext context, StringBuilder buf) {
3072             Long value = context.getValue(field);
3073             if (value == null) {
3074                 return false;
3075             }
3076             String text;
3077             Chronology chrono = context.getTemporal().query(TemporalQueries.chronology());
3078             if (chrono == null || chrono == IsoChronology.INSTANCE) {
3079                 text = provider.getText(field, value, textStyle, context.getLocale());
3080             } else {
3081                 text = provider.getText(chrono, field, value, textStyle, context.getLocale());
3082             }
3083             if (text == null) {
3084                 return numberPrinterParser().format(context, buf);
3085             }
3086             buf.append(text);
3087             return true;
3088         }
3089 
3090         @Override
3091         public int parse(DateTimeParseContext context, CharSequence parseText, int position) {
3092             int length = parseText.length();
3093             if (position < 0 || position > length) {
3094                 throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException();
3095             }
3096             TextStyle style = (context.isStrict() ? textStyle : null);
3097             Chronology chrono = context.getEffectiveChronology();
3098             Iterator<Entry<String, Long>> it;
3099             if (chrono == null || chrono == IsoChronology.INSTANCE) {
3100                 it = provider.getTextIterator(field, style, context.getLocale());
3101             } else {
3102                 it = provider.getTextIterator(chrono, field, style, context.getLocale());
3103             }
3104             if (it != null) {
3105                 while (it.hasNext()) {
3106                     Entry<String, Long> entry = it.next();
3107                     String itText = entry.getKey();
3108                     if (context.subSequenceEquals(itText, 0, parseText, position, itText.length())) {
3109                         return context.setParsedField(field, entry.getValue(), position, position + itText.length());
3110                     }
3111                 }
3112                 if (context.isStrict()) {
3113                     return ~position;
3114                 }
3115             }
3116             return numberPrinterParser().parse(context, parseText, position);
3117         }
3118 
3119         /**
3120          * Create and cache a number printer parser.
3121          * @return the number printer parser for this field, not null
3122          */
3123         private NumberPrinterParser numberPrinterParser() {
3124             if (numberPrinterParser == null) {
3125                 numberPrinterParser = new NumberPrinterParser(field, 1, 19, SignStyle.NORMAL);
3126             }
3127             return numberPrinterParser;
3128         }
3129 
3130         @Override
3131         public String toString() {
3132             if (textStyle == TextStyle.FULL) {
3133                 return "Text(" + field + ")";
3134             }
3135             return "Text(" + field + "," + textStyle + ")";
3136         }
3137     }
3138 
3139     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
3140     /**
3141      * Prints or parses an ISO-8601 instant.
3142      */
3143     static final class InstantPrinterParser implements DateTimePrinterParser {
3144         // days in a 400 year cycle = 146097
3145         // days in a 10,000 year cycle = 146097 * 25
3146         // seconds per day = 86400
3147         private static final long SECONDS_PER_10000_YEARS = 146097L * 25L * 86400L;
3148         private static final long SECONDS_0000_TO_1970 = ((146097L * 5L) - (30L * 365L + 7L)) * 86400L;
3149         private final int fractionalDigits;
3150 
3151         InstantPrinterParser(int fractionalDigits) {
3152             this.fractionalDigits = fractionalDigits;
3153         }
3154 
3155         @Override
3156         public boolean format(DateTimePrintContext context, StringBuilder buf) {
3157             // use INSTANT_SECONDS, thus this code is not bound by Instant.MAX
3158             Long inSecs = context.getValue(INSTANT_SECONDS);
3159             Long inNanos = null;
3160             if (context.getTemporal().isSupported(NANO_OF_SECOND)) {
3161                 inNanos = context.getTemporal().getLong(NANO_OF_SECOND);
3162             }
3163             if (inSecs == null) {
3164                 return false;
3165             }
3166             long inSec = inSecs;
3167             int inNano = NANO_OF_SECOND.checkValidIntValue(inNanos != null ? inNanos : 0);
3168             // format mostly using LocalDateTime.toString
3169             if (inSec >= -SECONDS_0000_TO_1970) {
3170                 // current era
3171                 long zeroSecs = inSec - SECONDS_PER_10000_YEARS + SECONDS_0000_TO_1970;
3172                 long hi = Math.floorDiv(zeroSecs, SECONDS_PER_10000_YEARS) + 1;
3173                 long lo = Math.floorMod(zeroSecs, SECONDS_PER_10000_YEARS);
3174                 LocalDateTime ldt = LocalDateTime.ofEpochSecond(lo - SECONDS_0000_TO_1970, 0, ZoneOffset.UTC);
3175                 if (hi > 0) {
3176                     buf.append('+').append(hi);
3177                 }
3178                 buf.append(ldt);
3179                 if (ldt.getSecond() == 0) {
3180                     buf.append(":00");
3181                 }
3182             } else {
3183                 // before current era
3184                 long zeroSecs = inSec + SECONDS_0000_TO_1970;
3185                 long hi = zeroSecs / SECONDS_PER_10000_YEARS;
3186                 long lo = zeroSecs % SECONDS_PER_10000_YEARS;
3187                 LocalDateTime ldt = LocalDateTime.ofEpochSecond(lo - SECONDS_0000_TO_1970, 0, ZoneOffset.UTC);
3188                 int pos = buf.length();
3189                 buf.append(ldt);
3190                 if (ldt.getSecond() == 0) {
3191                     buf.append(":00");
3192                 }
3193                 if (hi < 0) {
3194                     if (ldt.getYear() == -10_000) {
3195                         buf.replace(pos, pos + 2, Long.toString(hi - 1));
3196                     } else if (lo == 0) {
3197                         buf.insert(pos, hi);
3198                     } else {
3199                         buf.insert(pos + 1, Math.abs(hi));
3200                     }
3201                 }
3202             }
3203             // add fraction
3204             if ((fractionalDigits < 0 && inNano > 0) || fractionalDigits > 0) {
3205                 buf.append('.');
3206                 int div = 100_000_000;
3207                 for (int i = 0; ((fractionalDigits == -1 && inNano > 0) ||
3208                                     (fractionalDigits == -2 && (inNano > 0 || (i % 3) != 0)) ||
3209                                     i < fractionalDigits); i++) {
3210                     int digit = inNano / div;
3211                     buf.append((char) (digit + '0'));
3212                     inNano = inNano - (digit * div);
3213                     div = div / 10;
3214                 }
3215             }
3216             buf.append('Z');
3217             return true;
3218         }
3219 
3220         @Override
3221         public int parse(DateTimeParseContext context, CharSequence text, int position) {
3222             // new context to avoid overwriting fields like year/month/day
3223             int minDigits = (fractionalDigits < 0 ? 0 : fractionalDigits);
3224             int maxDigits = (fractionalDigits < 0 ? 9 : fractionalDigits);
3225             CompositePrinterParser parser = new DateTimeFormatterBuilder()
3226                     .append(DateTimeFormatter.ISO_LOCAL_DATE).appendLiteral('T')
3227                     .appendValue(HOUR_OF_DAY, 2).appendLiteral(':')
3228                     .appendValue(MINUTE_OF_HOUR, 2).appendLiteral(':')
3229                     .appendValue(SECOND_OF_MINUTE, 2)
3230                     .appendFraction(NANO_OF_SECOND, minDigits, maxDigits, true)
3231                     .appendLiteral('Z')
3232                     .toFormatter().toPrinterParser(false);
3233             DateTimeParseContext newContext = context.copy();
3234             int pos = parser.parse(newContext, text, position);
3235             if (pos < 0) {
3236                 return pos;
3237             }
3238             // parser restricts most fields to 2 digits, so definitely int
3239             // correctly parsed nano is also guaranteed to be valid
3240             long yearParsed = newContext.getParsed(YEAR);
3241             int month = newContext.getParsed(MONTH_OF_YEAR).intValue();
3242             int day = newContext.getParsed(DAY_OF_MONTH).intValue();
3243             int hour = newContext.getParsed(HOUR_OF_DAY).intValue();
3244             int min = newContext.getParsed(MINUTE_OF_HOUR).intValue();
3245             Long secVal = newContext.getParsed(SECOND_OF_MINUTE);
3246             Long nanoVal = newContext.getParsed(NANO_OF_SECOND);
3247             int sec = (secVal != null ? secVal.intValue() : 0);
3248             int nano = (nanoVal != null ? nanoVal.intValue() : 0);
3249             int days = 0;
3250             if (hour == 24 && min == 0 && sec == 0 && nano == 0) {
3251                 hour = 0;
3252                 days = 1;
3253             } else if (hour == 23 && min == 59 && sec == 60) {
3254                 context.setParsedLeapSecond();
3255                 sec = 59;
3256             }
3257             int year = (int) yearParsed % 10_000;
3258             long instantSecs;
3259             try {
3260                 LocalDateTime ldt = LocalDateTime.of(year, month, day, hour, min, sec, 0).plusDays(days);
3261                 instantSecs = ldt.toEpochSecond(ZoneOffset.UTC);
3262                 instantSecs += Math.multiplyExact(yearParsed / 10_000L, SECONDS_PER_10000_YEARS);
3263             } catch (RuntimeException ex) {
3264                 return ~position;
3265             }
3266             int successPos = text.length();
3267             successPos = context.setParsedField(INSTANT_SECONDS, instantSecs, position, successPos);
3268             return context.setParsedField(NANO_OF_SECOND, nano, position, successPos);
3269         }
3270 
3271         @Override
3272         public String toString() {
3273             return "Instant()";
3274         }
3275     }
3276 
3277     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
3278     /**
3279      * Prints or parses an offset ID.
3280      */
3281     static final class OffsetIdPrinterParser implements DateTimePrinterParser {
3282         static final String[] PATTERNS = new String[] {
3283             "+HH", "+HHmm", "+HH:mm", "+HHMM", "+HH:MM", "+HHMMss", "+HH:MM:ss", "+HHMMSS", "+HH:MM:SS",
3284         };  // order used in pattern builder
3285         static final OffsetIdPrinterParser INSTANCE_ID_Z = new OffsetIdPrinterParser("+HH:MM:ss", "Z");
3286         static final OffsetIdPrinterParser INSTANCE_ID_ZERO = new OffsetIdPrinterParser("+HH:MM:ss", "0");
3287 
3288         private final String noOffsetText;
3289         private final int type;
3290 
3291         /**
3292          * Constructor.
3293          *
3294          * @param pattern  the pattern
3295          * @param noOffsetText  the text to use for UTC, not null
3296          */
3297         OffsetIdPrinterParser(String pattern, String noOffsetText) {
3298             Objects.requireNonNull(pattern, "pattern");
3299             Objects.requireNonNull(noOffsetText, "noOffsetText");
3300             this.type = checkPattern(pattern);
3301             this.noOffsetText = noOffsetText;
3302         }
3303 
3304         private int checkPattern(String pattern) {
3305             for (int i = 0; i < PATTERNS.length; i++) {
3306                 if (PATTERNS[i].equals(pattern)) {
3307                     return i;
3308                 }
3309             }
3310             throw new IllegalArgumentException("Invalid zone offset pattern: " + pattern);
3311         }
3312 
3313         @Override
3314         public boolean format(DateTimePrintContext context, StringBuilder buf) {
3315             Long offsetSecs = context.getValue(OFFSET_SECONDS);
3316             if (offsetSecs == null) {
3317                 return false;
3318             }
3319             int totalSecs = Math.toIntExact(offsetSecs);
3320             if (totalSecs == 0) {
3321                 buf.append(noOffsetText);
3322             } else {
3323                 int absHours = Math.abs((totalSecs / 3600) % 100);  // anything larger than 99 silently dropped
3324                 int absMinutes = Math.abs((totalSecs / 60) % 60);
3325                 int absSeconds = Math.abs(totalSecs % 60);
3326                 int bufPos = buf.length();
3327                 int output = absHours;
3328                 buf.append(totalSecs < 0 ? "-" : "+")
3329                     .append((char) (absHours / 10 + '0')).append((char) (absHours % 10 + '0'));
3330                 if (type >= 3 || (type >= 1 && absMinutes > 0)) {
3331                     buf.append((type % 2) == 0 ? ":" : "")
3332                         .append((char) (absMinutes / 10 + '0')).append((char) (absMinutes % 10 + '0'));
3333                     output += absMinutes;
3334                     if (type >= 7 || (type >= 5 && absSeconds > 0)) {
3335                         buf.append((type % 2) == 0 ? ":" : "")
3336                             .append((char) (absSeconds / 10 + '0')).append((char) (absSeconds % 10 + '0'));
3337                         output += absSeconds;
3338                     }
3339                 }
3340                 if (output == 0) {
3341                     buf.setLength(bufPos);
3342                     buf.append(noOffsetText);
3343                 }
3344             }
3345             return true;
3346         }
3347 
3348         @Override
3349         public int parse(DateTimeParseContext context, CharSequence text, int position) {
3350             int length = text.length();
3351             int noOffsetLen = noOffsetText.length();
3352             if (noOffsetLen == 0) {
3353                 if (position == length) {
3354                     return context.setParsedField(OFFSET_SECONDS, 0, position, position);
3355                 }
3356             } else {
3357                 if (position == length) {
3358                     return ~position;
3359                 }
3360                 if (context.subSequenceEquals(text, position, noOffsetText, 0, noOffsetLen)) {
3361                     return context.setParsedField(OFFSET_SECONDS, 0, position, position + noOffsetLen);
3362                 }
3363             }
3364 
3365             // parse normal plus/minus offset
3366             char sign = text.charAt(position);  // IOOBE if invalid position
3367             if (sign == '+' || sign == '-') {
3368                 // starts
3369                 int negative = (sign == '-' ? -1 : 1);
3370                 int[] array = new int[4];
3371                 array[0] = position + 1;
3372                 if ((parseNumber(array, 1, text, true) ||
3373                         parseNumber(array, 2, text, type >=3) ||
3374                         parseNumber(array, 3, text, false)) == false) {
3375                     // success
3376                     long offsetSecs = negative * (array[1] * 3600L + array[2] * 60L + array[3]);
3377                     return context.setParsedField(OFFSET_SECONDS, offsetSecs, position, array[0]);
3378                 }
3379             }
3380             // handle special case of empty no offset text
3381             if (noOffsetLen == 0) {
3382                 return context.setParsedField(OFFSET_SECONDS, 0, position, position + noOffsetLen);
3383             }
3384             return ~position;
3385         }
3386 
3387         /**
3388          * Parse a two digit zero-prefixed number.
3389          *
3390          * @param array  the array of parsed data, 0=pos,1=hours,2=mins,3=secs, not null
3391          * @param arrayIndex  the index to parse the value into
3392          * @param parseText  the offset ID, not null
3393          * @param required  whether this number is required
3394          * @return true if an error occurred
3395          */
3396         private boolean parseNumber(int[] array, int arrayIndex, CharSequence parseText, boolean required) {
3397             if ((type + 3) / 2 < arrayIndex) {
3398                 return false;  // ignore seconds/minutes
3399             }
3400             int pos = array[0];
3401             if ((type % 2) == 0 && arrayIndex > 1) {
3402                 if (pos + 1 > parseText.length() || parseText.charAt(pos) != ':') {
3403                     return required;
3404                 }
3405                 pos++;
3406             }
3407             if (pos + 2 > parseText.length()) {
3408                 return required;
3409             }
3410             char ch1 = parseText.charAt(pos++);
3411             char ch2 = parseText.charAt(pos++);
3412             if (ch1 < '0' || ch1 > '9' || ch2 < '0' || ch2 > '9') {
3413                 return required;
3414             }
3415             int value = (ch1 - 48) * 10 + (ch2 - 48);
3416             if (value < 0 || value > 59) {
3417                 return required;
3418             }
3419             array[arrayIndex] = value;
3420             array[0] = pos;
3421             return false;
3422         }
3423 
3424         @Override
3425         public String toString() {
3426             String converted = noOffsetText.replace("'", "''");
3427             return "Offset(" + PATTERNS[type] + ",'" + converted + "')";
3428         }
3429     }
3430 
3431     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
3432     /**
3433      * Prints or parses an offset ID.
3434      */
3435     static final class LocalizedOffsetIdPrinterParser implements DateTimePrinterParser {
3436         private final TextStyle style;
3437 
3438         /**
3439          * Constructor.
3440          *
3441          * @param style  the style, not null
3442          */
3443         LocalizedOffsetIdPrinterParser(TextStyle style) {
3444             this.style = style;
3445         }
3446 
3447         private static StringBuilder appendHMS(StringBuilder buf, int t) {
3448             return buf.append((char)(t / 10 + '0'))
3449                       .append((char)(t % 10 + '0'));
3450         }
3451 
3452         @Override
3453         public boolean format(DateTimePrintContext context, StringBuilder buf) {
3454             Long offsetSecs = context.getValue(OFFSET_SECONDS);
3455             if (offsetSecs == null) {
3456                 return false;
3457             }
3458             String gmtText = "GMT";  // TODO: get localized version of 'GMT'
3459             if (gmtText != null) {
3460                 buf.append(gmtText);
3461             }
3462             int totalSecs = Math.toIntExact(offsetSecs);
3463             if (totalSecs != 0) {
3464                 int absHours = Math.abs((totalSecs / 3600) % 100);  // anything larger than 99 silently dropped
3465                 int absMinutes = Math.abs((totalSecs / 60) % 60);
3466                 int absSeconds = Math.abs(totalSecs % 60);
3467                 buf.append(totalSecs < 0 ? "-" : "+");
3468                 if (style == TextStyle.FULL) {
3469                     appendHMS(buf, absHours);
3470                     buf.append(':');
3471                     appendHMS(buf, absMinutes);
3472                     if (absSeconds != 0) {
3473                        buf.append(':');
3474                        appendHMS(buf, absSeconds);
3475                     }
3476                 } else {
3477                     if (absHours >= 10) {
3478                         buf.append((char)(absHours / 10 + '0'));
3479                     }
3480                     buf.append((char)(absHours % 10 + '0'));
3481                     if (absMinutes != 0 || absSeconds != 0) {
3482                         buf.append(':');
3483                         appendHMS(buf, absMinutes);
3484                         if (absSeconds != 0) {
3485                             buf.append(':');
3486                             appendHMS(buf, absSeconds);
3487                         }
3488                     }
3489                 }
3490             }
3491             return true;
3492         }
3493 
3494         int getDigit(CharSequence text, int position) {
3495             char c = text.charAt(position);
3496             if (c < '0' || c > '9') {
3497                 return -1;
3498             }
3499             return c - '0';
3500         }
3501 
3502         @Override
3503         public int parse(DateTimeParseContext context, CharSequence text, int position) {
3504             int pos = position;
3505             int end = pos + text.length();
3506             String gmtText = "GMT";  // TODO: get localized version of 'GMT'
3507             if (gmtText != null) {
3508                 if (!context.subSequenceEquals(text, pos, gmtText, 0, gmtText.length())) {
3509                     return ~position;
3510                 }
3511                 pos += gmtText.length();
3512             }
3513             // parse normal plus/minus offset
3514             int negative = 0;
3515             if (pos == end) {
3516                 return context.setParsedField(OFFSET_SECONDS, 0, position, pos);
3517             }
3518             char sign = text.charAt(pos);  // IOOBE if invalid position
3519             if (sign == '+') {
3520                 negative = 1;
3521             } else if (sign == '-') {
3522                 negative = -1;
3523             } else {
3524                 return context.setParsedField(OFFSET_SECONDS, 0, position, pos);
3525             }
3526             pos++;
3527             int h = 0;
3528             int m = 0;
3529             int s = 0;
3530             if (style == TextStyle.FULL) {
3531                 int h1 = getDigit(text, pos++);
3532                 int h2 = getDigit(text, pos++);
3533                 if (h1 < 0 || h2 < 0 || text.charAt(pos++) != ':') {
3534                     return ~position;
3535                 }
3536                 h = h1 * 10 + h2;
3537                 int m1 = getDigit(text, pos++);
3538                 int m2 = getDigit(text, pos++);
3539                 if (m1 < 0 || m2 < 0) {
3540                     return ~position;
3541                 }
3542                 m = m1 * 10 + m2;
3543                 if (pos + 2 < end && text.charAt(pos) == ':') {
3544                     int s1 = getDigit(text, pos + 1);
3545                     int s2 = getDigit(text, pos + 2);
3546                     if (s1 >= 0 && s2 >= 0) {
3547                         s = s1 * 10 + s2;
3548                         pos += 3;
3549                     }
3550                 }
3551             } else {
3552                 h = getDigit(text, pos++);
3553                 if (h < 0) {
3554                     return ~position;
3555                 }
3556                 if (pos < end) {
3557                     int h2 = getDigit(text, pos);
3558                     if (h2 >=0) {
3559                         h = h * 10 + h2;
3560                         pos++;
3561                     }
3562                     if (pos + 2 < end && text.charAt(pos) == ':') {
3563                         if (pos + 2 < end && text.charAt(pos) == ':') {
3564                             int m1 = getDigit(text, pos + 1);
3565                             int m2 = getDigit(text, pos + 2);
3566                             if (m1 >= 0 && m2 >= 0) {
3567                                 m = m1 * 10 + m2;
3568                                 pos += 3;
3569                                 if (pos + 2 < end && text.charAt(pos) == ':') {
3570                                     int s1 = getDigit(text, pos + 1);
3571                                     int s2 = getDigit(text, pos + 2);
3572                                     if (s1 >= 0 && s2 >= 0) {
3573                                         s = s1 * 10 + s2;
3574                                         pos += 3;
3575                                    }
3576                                 }
3577                             }
3578                         }
3579                     }
3580                 }
3581             }
3582             long offsetSecs = negative * (h * 3600L + m * 60L + s);
3583             return context.setParsedField(OFFSET_SECONDS, offsetSecs, position, pos);
3584         }
3585 
3586         @Override
3587         public String toString() {
3588             return "LocalizedOffset(" + style + ")";
3589         }
3590     }
3591 
3592     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
3593     /**
3594      * Prints or parses a zone ID.
3595      */
3596     static final class ZoneTextPrinterParser extends ZoneIdPrinterParser {
3597 
3598         /** The text style to output. */
3599         private final TextStyle textStyle;
3600 
3601         /** The preferred zoneid map */
3602         private Set<String> preferredZones;
3603 
3604         ZoneTextPrinterParser(TextStyle textStyle, Set<ZoneId> preferredZones) {
3605             super(TemporalQueries.zone(), "ZoneText(" + textStyle + ")");
3606             this.textStyle = Objects.requireNonNull(textStyle, "textStyle");
3607             if (preferredZones != null && preferredZones.size() != 0) {
3608                 this.preferredZones = new HashSet<>();
3609                 for (ZoneId id : preferredZones) {
3610                     this.preferredZones.add(id.getId());
3611                 }
3612             }
3613         }
3614 
3615         private static final int STD = 0;
3616         private static final int DST = 1;
3617         private static final int GENERIC = 2;
3618         private static final Map<String, SoftReference<Map<Locale, String[]>>> cache =
3619             new ConcurrentHashMap<>();
3620 
3621         private String getDisplayName(String id, int type, Locale locale) {
3622             if (textStyle == TextStyle.NARROW) {
3623                 return null;
3624             }
3625             String[] names;
3626             SoftReference<Map<Locale, String[]>> ref = cache.get(id);
3627             Map<Locale, String[]> perLocale = null;
3628             if (ref == null || (perLocale = ref.get()) == null ||
3629                 (names = perLocale.get(locale)) == null) {
3630                 names = TimeZoneNameUtility.retrieveDisplayNames(id, locale);
3631                 if (names == null) {
3632                     return null;
3633                 }
3634                 names = Arrays.copyOfRange(names, 0, 7);
3635                 names[5] =
3636                     TimeZoneNameUtility.retrieveGenericDisplayName(id, TimeZone.LONG, locale);
3637                 if (names[5] == null) {
3638                     names[5] = names[0]; // use the id
3639                 }
3640                 names[6] =
3641                     TimeZoneNameUtility.retrieveGenericDisplayName(id, TimeZone.SHORT, locale);
3642                 if (names[6] == null) {
3643                     names[6] = names[0];
3644                 }
3645                 if (perLocale == null) {
3646                     perLocale = new ConcurrentHashMap<>();
3647                 }
3648                 perLocale.put(locale, names);
3649                 cache.put(id, new SoftReference<>(perLocale));
3650             }
3651             switch (type) {
3652             case STD:
3653                 return names[textStyle.zoneNameStyleIndex() + 1];
3654             case DST:
3655                 return names[textStyle.zoneNameStyleIndex() + 3];
3656             }
3657             return names[textStyle.zoneNameStyleIndex() + 5];
3658         }
3659 
3660         @Override
3661         public boolean format(DateTimePrintContext context, StringBuilder buf) {
3662             ZoneId zone = context.getValue(TemporalQueries.zoneId());
3663             if (zone == null) {
3664                 return false;
3665             }
3666             String zname = zone.getId();
3667             if (!(zone instanceof ZoneOffset)) {
3668                 TemporalAccessor dt = context.getTemporal();
3669                 String name = getDisplayName(zname,
3670                                              dt.isSupported(ChronoField.INSTANT_SECONDS)
3671                                              ? (zone.getRules().isDaylightSavings(Instant.from(dt)) ? DST : STD)
3672                                              : GENERIC,
3673                                              context.getLocale());
3674                 if (name != null) {
3675                     zname = name;
3676                 }
3677             }
3678             buf.append(zname);
3679             return true;
3680         }
3681 
3682         // cache per instance for now
3683         private final Map<Locale, Entry<Integer, SoftReference<PrefixTree>>>
3684             cachedTree = new HashMap<>();
3685         private final Map<Locale, Entry<Integer, SoftReference<PrefixTree>>>
3686             cachedTreeCI = new HashMap<>();
3687 
3688         @Override
3689         protected PrefixTree getTree(DateTimeParseContext context) {
3690             if (textStyle == TextStyle.NARROW) {
3691                 return super.getTree(context);
3692             }
3693             Locale locale = context.getLocale();
3694             boolean isCaseSensitive = context.isCaseSensitive();
3695             Set<String> regionIds = ZoneRulesProvider.getAvailableZoneIds();
3696             int regionIdsSize = regionIds.size();
3697 
3698             Map<Locale, Entry<Integer, SoftReference<PrefixTree>>> cached =
3699                 isCaseSensitive ? cachedTree : cachedTreeCI;
3700 
3701             Entry<Integer, SoftReference<PrefixTree>> entry = null;
3702             PrefixTree tree = null;
3703             String[][] zoneStrings = null;
3704             if ((entry = cached.get(locale)) == null ||
3705                 (entry.getKey() != regionIdsSize ||
3706                 (tree = entry.getValue().get()) == null)) {
3707                 tree = PrefixTree.newTree(context);
3708                 zoneStrings = TimeZoneNameUtility.getZoneStrings(locale);
3709                 for (String[] names : zoneStrings) {
3710                     String zid = names[0];
3711                     if (!regionIds.contains(zid)) {
3712                         continue;
3713                     }
3714                     tree.add(zid, zid);    // don't convert zid -> metazone
3715                     zid = ZoneName.toZid(zid, locale);
3716                     int i = textStyle == TextStyle.FULL ? 1 : 2;
3717                     for (; i < names.length; i += 2) {
3718                         tree.add(names[i], zid);
3719                     }
3720                 }
3721                 // if we have a set of preferred zones, need a copy and
3722                 // add the preferred zones again to overwrite
3723                 if (preferredZones != null) {
3724                     for (String[] names : zoneStrings) {
3725                         String zid = names[0];
3726                         if (!preferredZones.contains(zid) || !regionIds.contains(zid)) {
3727                             continue;
3728                         }
3729                         int i = textStyle == TextStyle.FULL ? 1 : 2;
3730                         for (; i < names.length; i += 2) {
3731                             tree.add(names[i], zid);
3732                        }
3733                     }
3734                 }
3735                 cached.put(locale, new SimpleImmutableEntry<>(regionIdsSize, new SoftReference<>(tree)));
3736             }
3737             return tree;
3738         }
3739     }
3740 
3741     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
3742     /**
3743      * Prints or parses a zone ID.
3744      */
3745     static class ZoneIdPrinterParser implements DateTimePrinterParser {
3746         private final TemporalQuery<ZoneId> query;
3747         private final String description;
3748 
3749         ZoneIdPrinterParser(TemporalQuery<ZoneId> query, String description) {
3750             this.query = query;
3751             this.description = description;
3752         }
3753 
3754         @Override
3755         public boolean format(DateTimePrintContext context, StringBuilder buf) {
3756             ZoneId zone = context.getValue(query);
3757             if (zone == null) {
3758                 return false;
3759             }
3760             buf.append(zone.getId());
3761             return true;
3762         }
3763 
3764         /**
3765          * The cached tree to speed up parsing.
3766          */
3767         private static volatile Entry<Integer, PrefixTree> cachedPrefixTree;
3768         private static volatile Entry<Integer, PrefixTree> cachedPrefixTreeCI;
3769 
3770         protected PrefixTree getTree(DateTimeParseContext context) {
3771             // prepare parse tree
3772             Set<String> regionIds = ZoneRulesProvider.getAvailableZoneIds();
3773             final int regionIdsSize = regionIds.size();
3774             Entry<Integer, PrefixTree> cached = context.isCaseSensitive()
3775                                                 ? cachedPrefixTree : cachedPrefixTreeCI;
3776             if (cached == null || cached.getKey() != regionIdsSize) {
3777                 synchronized (this) {
3778                     cached = context.isCaseSensitive() ? cachedPrefixTree : cachedPrefixTreeCI;
3779                     if (cached == null || cached.getKey() != regionIdsSize) {
3780                         cached = new SimpleImmutableEntry<>(regionIdsSize, PrefixTree.newTree(regionIds, context));
3781                         if (context.isCaseSensitive()) {
3782                             cachedPrefixTree = cached;
3783                         } else {
3784                             cachedPrefixTreeCI = cached;
3785                         }
3786                     }
3787                 }
3788             }
3789             return cached.getValue();
3790         }
3791 
3792         /**
3793          * This implementation looks for the longest matching string.
3794          * For example, parsing Etc/GMT-2 will return Etc/GMC-2 rather than just
3795          * Etc/GMC although both are valid.
3796          */
3797         @Override
3798         public int parse(DateTimeParseContext context, CharSequence text, int position) {
3799             int length = text.length();
3800             if (position > length) {
3801                 throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException();
3802             }
3803             if (position == length) {
3804                 return ~position;
3805             }
3806 
3807             // handle fixed time-zone IDs
3808             char nextChar = text.charAt(position);
3809             if (nextChar == '+' || nextChar == '-') {
3810                 return parseOffsetBased(context, text, position, position, OffsetIdPrinterParser.INSTANCE_ID_Z);
3811             } else if (length >= position + 2) {
3812                 char nextNextChar = text.charAt(position + 1);
3813                 if (context.charEquals(nextChar, 'U') && context.charEquals(nextNextChar, 'T')) {
3814                     if (length >= position + 3 && context.charEquals(text.charAt(position + 2), 'C')) {
3815                         return parseOffsetBased(context, text, position, position + 3, OffsetIdPrinterParser.INSTANCE_ID_ZERO);
3816                     }
3817                     return parseOffsetBased(context, text, position, position + 2, OffsetIdPrinterParser.INSTANCE_ID_ZERO);
3818                 } else if (context.charEquals(nextChar, 'G') && length >= position + 3 &&
3819                         context.charEquals(nextNextChar, 'M') && context.charEquals(text.charAt(position + 2), 'T')) {
3820                     return parseOffsetBased(context, text, position, position + 3, OffsetIdPrinterParser.INSTANCE_ID_ZERO);
3821                 }
3822             }
3823 
3824             // parse
3825             PrefixTree tree = getTree(context);
3826             ParsePosition ppos = new ParsePosition(position);
3827             String parsedZoneId = tree.match(text, ppos);
3828             if (parsedZoneId == null) {
3829                 if (context.charEquals(nextChar, 'Z')) {
3830                     context.setParsed(ZoneOffset.UTC);
3831                     return position + 1;
3832                 }
3833                 return ~position;
3834             }
3835             context.setParsed(ZoneId.of(parsedZoneId));
3836             return ppos.getIndex();
3837         }
3838 
3839         /**
3840          * Parse an offset following a prefix and set the ZoneId if it is valid.
3841          * To matching the parsing of ZoneId.of the values are not normalized
3842          * to ZoneOffsets.
3843          *
3844          * @param context the parse context
3845          * @param text the input text
3846          * @param prefixPos start of the prefix
3847          * @param position start of text after the prefix
3848          * @param parser parser for the value after the prefix
3849          * @return the position after the parse
3850          */
3851         private int parseOffsetBased(DateTimeParseContext context, CharSequence text, int prefixPos, int position, OffsetIdPrinterParser parser) {
3852             String prefix = text.toString().substring(prefixPos, position).toUpperCase();
3853             if (position >= text.length()) {
3854                 context.setParsed(ZoneId.of(prefix));
3855                 return position;
3856             }
3857 
3858             // '0' or 'Z' after prefix is not part of a valid ZoneId; use bare prefix
3859             if (text.charAt(position) == '0' ||
3860                 context.charEquals(text.charAt(position), 'Z')) {
3861                 context.setParsed(ZoneId.of(prefix));
3862                 return position;
3863             }
3864 
3865             DateTimeParseContext newContext = context.copy();
3866             int endPos = parser.parse(newContext, text, position);
3867             try {
3868                 if (endPos < 0) {
3869                     if (parser == OffsetIdPrinterParser.INSTANCE_ID_Z) {
3870                         return ~prefixPos;
3871                     }
3872                     context.setParsed(ZoneId.of(prefix));
3873                     return position;
3874                 }
3875                 int offset = (int) newContext.getParsed(OFFSET_SECONDS).longValue();
3876                 ZoneOffset zoneOffset = ZoneOffset.ofTotalSeconds(offset);
3877                 context.setParsed(ZoneId.ofOffset(prefix, zoneOffset));
3878                 return endPos;
3879             } catch (DateTimeException dte) {
3880                 return ~prefixPos;
3881             }
3882         }
3883 
3884         @Override
3885         public String toString() {
3886             return description;
3887         }
3888     }
3889 
3890     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
3891     /**
3892      * A String based prefix tree for parsing time-zone names.
3893      */
3894     static class PrefixTree {
3895         protected String key;
3896         protected String value;
3897         protected char c0;    // performance optimization to avoid the
3898                               // boundary check cost of key.charat(0)
3899         protected PrefixTree child;
3900         protected PrefixTree sibling;
3901 
3902         private PrefixTree(String k, String v, PrefixTree child) {
3903             this.key = k;
3904             this.value = v;
3905             this.child = child;
3906             if (k.length() == 0){
3907                 c0 = 0xffff;
3908             } else {
3909                 c0 = key.charAt(0);
3910             }
3911         }
3912 
3913         /**
3914          * Creates a new prefix parsing tree based on parse context.
3915          *
3916          * @param context  the parse context
3917          * @return the tree, not null
3918          */
3919         public static PrefixTree newTree(DateTimeParseContext context) {
3920             //if (!context.isStrict()) {
3921             //    return new LENIENT("", null, null);
3922             //}
3923             if (context.isCaseSensitive()) {
3924                 return new PrefixTree("", null, null);
3925             }
3926             return new CI("", null, null);
3927         }
3928 
3929         /**
3930          * Creates a new prefix parsing tree.
3931          *
3932          * @param keys  a set of strings to build the prefix parsing tree, not null
3933          * @param context  the parse context
3934          * @return the tree, not null
3935          */
3936         public static  PrefixTree newTree(Set<String> keys, DateTimeParseContext context) {
3937             PrefixTree tree = newTree(context);
3938             for (String k : keys) {
3939                 tree.add0(k, k);
3940             }
3941             return tree;
3942         }
3943 
3944         /**
3945          * Clone a copy of this tree
3946          */
3947         public PrefixTree copyTree() {
3948             PrefixTree copy = new PrefixTree(key, value, null);
3949             if (child != null) {
3950                 copy.child = child.copyTree();
3951             }
3952             if (sibling != null) {
3953                 copy.sibling = sibling.copyTree();
3954             }
3955             return copy;
3956         }
3957 
3958 
3959         /**
3960          * Adds a pair of {key, value} into the prefix tree.
3961          *
3962          * @param k  the key, not null
3963          * @param v  the value, not null
3964          * @return  true if the pair is added successfully
3965          */
3966         public boolean add(String k, String v) {
3967             return add0(k, v);
3968         }
3969 
3970         private boolean add0(String k, String v) {
3971             k = toKey(k);
3972             int prefixLen = prefixLength(k);
3973             if (prefixLen == key.length()) {
3974                 if (prefixLen < k.length()) {  // down the tree
3975                     String subKey = k.substring(prefixLen);
3976                     PrefixTree c = child;
3977                     while (c != null) {
3978                         if (isEqual(c.c0, subKey.charAt(0))) {
3979                             return c.add0(subKey, v);
3980                         }
3981                         c = c.sibling;
3982                     }
3983                     // add the node as the child of the current node
3984                     c = newNode(subKey, v, null);
3985                     c.sibling = child;
3986                     child = c;
3987                     return true;
3988                 }
3989                 // have an existing <key, value> already, overwrite it
3990                 // if (value != null) {
3991                 //    return false;
3992                 //}
3993                 value = v;
3994                 return true;
3995             }
3996             // split the existing node
3997             PrefixTree n1 = newNode(key.substring(prefixLen), value, child);
3998             key = k.substring(0, prefixLen);
3999             child = n1;
4000             if (prefixLen < k.length()) {
4001                 PrefixTree n2 = newNode(k.substring(prefixLen), v, null);
4002                 child.sibling = n2;
4003                 value = null;
4004             } else {
4005                 value = v;
4006             }
4007             return true;
4008         }
4009 
4010         /**
4011          * Match text with the prefix tree.
4012          *
4013          * @param text  the input text to parse, not null
4014          * @param off  the offset position to start parsing at
4015          * @param end  the end position to stop parsing
4016          * @return the resulting string, or null if no match found.
4017          */
4018         public String match(CharSequence text, int off, int end) {
4019             if (!prefixOf(text, off, end)){
4020                 return null;
4021             }
4022             if (child != null && (off += key.length()) != end) {
4023                 PrefixTree c = child;
4024                 do {
4025                     if (isEqual(c.c0, text.charAt(off))) {
4026                         String found = c.match(text, off, end);
4027                         if (found != null) {
4028                             return found;
4029                         }
4030                         return value;
4031                     }
4032                     c = c.sibling;
4033                 } while (c != null);
4034             }
4035             return value;
4036         }
4037 
4038         /**
4039          * Match text with the prefix tree.
4040          *
4041          * @param text  the input text to parse, not null
4042          * @param pos  the position to start parsing at, from 0 to the text
4043          *  length. Upon return, position will be updated to the new parse
4044          *  position, or unchanged, if no match found.
4045          * @return the resulting string, or null if no match found.
4046          */
4047         public String match(CharSequence text, ParsePosition pos) {
4048             int off = pos.getIndex();
4049             int end = text.length();
4050             if (!prefixOf(text, off, end)){
4051                 return null;
4052             }
4053             off += key.length();
4054             if (child != null && off != end) {
4055                 PrefixTree c = child;
4056                 do {
4057                     if (isEqual(c.c0, text.charAt(off))) {
4058                         pos.setIndex(off);
4059                         String found = c.match(text, pos);
4060                         if (found != null) {
4061                             return found;
4062                         }
4063                         break;
4064                     }
4065                     c = c.sibling;
4066                 } while (c != null);
4067             }
4068             pos.setIndex(off);
4069             return value;
4070         }
4071 
4072         protected String toKey(String k) {
4073             return k;
4074         }
4075 
4076         protected PrefixTree newNode(String k, String v, PrefixTree child) {
4077             return new PrefixTree(k, v, child);
4078         }
4079 
4080         protected boolean isEqual(char c1, char c2) {
4081             return c1 == c2;
4082         }
4083 
4084         protected boolean prefixOf(CharSequence text, int off, int end) {
4085             if (text instanceof String) {
4086                 return ((String)text).startsWith(key, off);
4087             }
4088             int len = key.length();
4089             if (len > end - off) {
4090                 return false;
4091             }
4092             int off0 = 0;
4093             while (len-- > 0) {
4094                 if (!isEqual(key.charAt(off0++), text.charAt(off++))) {
4095                     return false;
4096                 }
4097             }
4098             return true;
4099         }
4100 
4101         private int prefixLength(String k) {
4102             int off = 0;
4103             while (off < k.length() && off < key.length()) {
4104                 if (!isEqual(k.charAt(off), key.charAt(off))) {
4105                     return off;
4106                 }
4107                 off++;
4108             }
4109             return off;
4110         }
4111 
4112         /**
4113          * Case Insensitive prefix tree.
4114          */
4115         private static class CI extends PrefixTree {
4116 
4117             private CI(String k, String v, PrefixTree child) {
4118                 super(k, v, child);
4119             }
4120 
4121             @Override
4122             protected CI newNode(String k, String v, PrefixTree child) {
4123                 return new CI(k, v, child);
4124             }
4125 
4126             @Override
4127             protected boolean isEqual(char c1, char c2) {
4128                 return DateTimeParseContext.charEqualsIgnoreCase(c1, c2);
4129             }
4130 
4131             @Override
4132             protected boolean prefixOf(CharSequence text, int off, int end) {
4133                 int len = key.length();
4134                 if (len > end - off) {
4135                     return false;
4136                 }
4137                 int off0 = 0;
4138                 while (len-- > 0) {
4139                     if (!isEqual(key.charAt(off0++), text.charAt(off++))) {
4140                         return false;
4141                     }
4142                 }
4143                 return true;
4144             }
4145         }
4146 
4147         /**
4148          * Lenient prefix tree. Case insensitive and ignores characters
4149          * like space, underscore and slash.
4150          */
4151         private static class LENIENT extends CI {
4152 
4153             private LENIENT(String k, String v, PrefixTree child) {
4154                 super(k, v, child);
4155             }
4156 
4157             @Override
4158             protected CI newNode(String k, String v, PrefixTree child) {
4159                 return new LENIENT(k, v, child);
4160             }
4161 
4162             private boolean isLenientChar(char c) {
4163                 return c == ' ' || c == '_' || c == '/';
4164             }
4165 
4166             protected String toKey(String k) {
4167                 for (int i = 0; i < k.length(); i++) {
4168                     if (isLenientChar(k.charAt(i))) {
4169                         StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder(k.length());
4170                         sb.append(k, 0, i);
4171                         i++;
4172                         while (i < k.length()) {
4173                             if (!isLenientChar(k.charAt(i))) {
4174                                 sb.append(k.charAt(i));
4175                             }
4176                             i++;
4177                         }
4178                         return sb.toString();
4179                     }
4180                 }
4181                 return k;
4182             }
4183 
4184             @Override
4185             public String match(CharSequence text, ParsePosition pos) {
4186                 int off = pos.getIndex();
4187                 int end = text.length();
4188                 int len = key.length();
4189                 int koff = 0;
4190                 while (koff < len && off < end) {
4191                     if (isLenientChar(text.charAt(off))) {
4192                         off++;
4193                         continue;
4194                     }
4195                     if (!isEqual(key.charAt(koff++), text.charAt(off++))) {
4196                         return null;
4197                     }
4198                 }
4199                 if (koff != len) {
4200                     return null;
4201                 }
4202                 if (child != null && off != end) {
4203                     int off0 = off;
4204                     while (off0 < end && isLenientChar(text.charAt(off0))) {
4205                         off0++;
4206                     }
4207                     if (off0 < end) {
4208                         PrefixTree c = child;
4209                         do {
4210                             if (isEqual(c.c0, text.charAt(off0))) {
4211                                 pos.setIndex(off0);
4212                                 String found = c.match(text, pos);
4213                                 if (found != null) {
4214                                     return found;
4215                                 }
4216                                 break;
4217                             }
4218                             c = c.sibling;
4219                         } while (c != null);
4220                     }
4221                 }
4222                 pos.setIndex(off);
4223                 return value;
4224             }
4225         }
4226     }
4227 
4228     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
4229     /**
4230      * Prints or parses a chronology.
4231      */
4232     static final class ChronoPrinterParser implements DateTimePrinterParser {
4233         /** The text style to output, null means the ID. */
4234         private final TextStyle textStyle;
4235 
4236         ChronoPrinterParser(TextStyle textStyle) {
4237             // validated by caller
4238             this.textStyle = textStyle;
4239         }
4240 
4241         @Override
4242         public boolean format(DateTimePrintContext context, StringBuilder buf) {
4243             Chronology chrono = context.getValue(TemporalQueries.chronology());
4244             if (chrono == null) {
4245                 return false;
4246             }
4247             if (textStyle == null) {
4248                 buf.append(chrono.getId());
4249             } else {
4250                 buf.append(getChronologyName(chrono, context.getLocale()));
4251             }
4252             return true;
4253         }
4254 
4255         @Override
4256         public int parse(DateTimeParseContext context, CharSequence text, int position) {
4257             // simple looping parser to find the chronology
4258             if (position < 0 || position > text.length()) {
4259                 throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException();
4260             }
4261             Set<Chronology> chronos = Chronology.getAvailableChronologies();
4262             Chronology bestMatch = null;
4263             int matchLen = -1;
4264             for (Chronology chrono : chronos) {
4265                 String name;
4266                 if (textStyle == null) {
4267                     name = chrono.getId();
4268                 } else {
4269                     name = getChronologyName(chrono, context.getLocale());
4270                 }
4271                 int nameLen = name.length();
4272                 if (nameLen > matchLen && context.subSequenceEquals(text, position, name, 0, nameLen)) {
4273                     bestMatch = chrono;
4274                     matchLen = nameLen;
4275                 }
4276             }
4277             if (bestMatch == null) {
4278                 return ~position;
4279             }
4280             context.setParsed(bestMatch);
4281             return position + matchLen;
4282         }
4283 
4284         /**
4285          * Returns the chronology name of the given chrono in the given locale
4286          * if available, or the chronology Id otherwise. The regular ResourceBundle
4287          * search path is used for looking up the chronology name.
4288          *
4289          * @param chrono  the chronology, not null
4290          * @param locale  the locale, not null
4291          * @return the chronology name of chrono in locale, or the id if no name is available
4292          * @throws NullPointerException if chrono or locale is null
4293          */
4294         private String getChronologyName(Chronology chrono, Locale locale) {
4295             String key = "calendarname." + chrono.getCalendarType();
4296             String name = DateTimeTextProvider.getLocalizedResource(key, locale);
4297             return name != null ? name : chrono.getId();
4298         }
4299     }
4300 
4301     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
4302     /**
4303      * Prints or parses a localized pattern.
4304      */
4305     static final class LocalizedPrinterParser implements DateTimePrinterParser {
4306         /** Cache of formatters. */
4307         private static final ConcurrentMap<String, DateTimeFormatter> FORMATTER_CACHE = new ConcurrentHashMap<>(16, 0.75f, 2);
4308 
4309         private final FormatStyle dateStyle;
4310         private final FormatStyle timeStyle;
4311 
4312         /**
4313          * Constructor.
4314          *
4315          * @param dateStyle  the date style to use, may be null
4316          * @param timeStyle  the time style to use, may be null
4317          */
4318         LocalizedPrinterParser(FormatStyle dateStyle, FormatStyle timeStyle) {
4319             // validated by caller
4320             this.dateStyle = dateStyle;
4321             this.timeStyle = timeStyle;
4322         }
4323 
4324         @Override
4325         public boolean format(DateTimePrintContext context, StringBuilder buf) {
4326             Chronology chrono = Chronology.from(context.getTemporal());
4327             return formatter(context.getLocale(), chrono).toPrinterParser(false).format(context, buf);
4328         }
4329 
4330         @Override
4331         public int parse(DateTimeParseContext context, CharSequence text, int position) {
4332             Chronology chrono = context.getEffectiveChronology();
4333             return formatter(context.getLocale(), chrono).toPrinterParser(false).parse(context, text, position);
4334         }
4335 
4336         /**
4337          * Gets the formatter to use.
4338          * <p>
4339          * The formatter will be the most appropriate to use for the date and time style in the locale.
4340          * For example, some locales will use the month name while others will use the number.
4341          *
4342          * @param locale  the locale to use, not null
4343          * @param chrono  the chronology to use, not null
4344          * @return the formatter, not null
4345          * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the formatter cannot be found
4346          */
4347         private DateTimeFormatter formatter(Locale locale, Chronology chrono) {
4348             String key = chrono.getId() + '|' + locale.toString() + '|' + dateStyle + timeStyle;
4349             DateTimeFormatter formatter = FORMATTER_CACHE.get(key);
4350             if (formatter == null) {
4351                 String pattern = getLocalizedDateTimePattern(dateStyle, timeStyle, chrono, locale);
4352                 formatter = new DateTimeFormatterBuilder().appendPattern(pattern).toFormatter(locale);
4353                 DateTimeFormatter old = FORMATTER_CACHE.putIfAbsent(key, formatter);
4354                 if (old != null) {
4355                     formatter = old;
4356                 }
4357             }
4358             return formatter;
4359         }
4360 
4361         @Override
4362         public String toString() {
4363             return "Localized(" + (dateStyle != null ? dateStyle : "") + "," +
4364                 (timeStyle != null ? timeStyle : "") + ")";
4365         }
4366     }
4367 
4368     //-----------------------------------------------------------------------
4369     /**
4370      * Prints or parses a localized pattern from a localized field.
4371      * The specific formatter and parameters is not selected until the
4372      * the field is to be printed or parsed.
4373      * The locale is needed to select the proper WeekFields from which
4374      * the field for day-of-week, week-of-month, or week-of-year is selected.
4375      */
4376     static final class WeekBasedFieldPrinterParser implements DateTimePrinterParser {
4377         private char chr;
4378         private int count;
4379 
4380         /**
4381          * Constructor.
4382          *
4383          * @param chr the pattern format letter that added this PrinterParser.
4384          * @param count the repeat count of the format letter
4385          */
4386         WeekBasedFieldPrinterParser(char chr, int count) {
4387             this.chr = chr;
4388             this.count = count;
4389         }
4390 
4391         @Override
4392         public boolean format(DateTimePrintContext context, StringBuilder buf) {
4393             return printerParser(context.getLocale()).format(context, buf);
4394         }
4395 
4396         @Override
4397         public int parse(DateTimeParseContext context, CharSequence text, int position) {
4398             return printerParser(context.getLocale()).parse(context, text, position);
4399         }
4400 
4401         /**
4402          * Gets the printerParser to use based on the field and the locale.
4403          *
4404          * @param locale  the locale to use, not null
4405          * @return the formatter, not null
4406          * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the formatter cannot be found
4407          */
4408         private DateTimePrinterParser printerParser(Locale locale) {
4409             WeekFields weekDef = WeekFields.of(locale);
4410             TemporalField field = null;
4411             switch (chr) {
4412                 case 'Y':
4413                     field = weekDef.weekBasedYear();
4414                     if (count == 2) {
4415                         return new ReducedPrinterParser(field, 2, 2, 0, ReducedPrinterParser.BASE_DATE, 0);
4416                     } else {
4417                         return new NumberPrinterParser(field, count, 19,
4418                                 (count < 4) ? SignStyle.NORMAL : SignStyle.EXCEEDS_PAD, -1);
4419                     }
4420                 case 'e':
4421                 case 'c':
4422                     field = weekDef.dayOfWeek();
4423                     break;
4424                 case 'w':
4425                     field = weekDef.weekOfWeekBasedYear();
4426                     break;
4427                 case 'W':
4428                     field = weekDef.weekOfMonth();
4429                     break;
4430                 default:
4431                     throw new IllegalStateException("unreachable");
4432             }
4433             return new NumberPrinterParser(field, (count == 2 ? 2 : 1), 2, SignStyle.NOT_NEGATIVE);
4434         }
4435 
4436         @Override
4437         public String toString() {
4438             StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder(30);
4439             sb.append("Localized(");
4440             if (chr == 'Y') {
4441                 if (count == 1) {
4442                     sb.append("WeekBasedYear");
4443                 } else if (count == 2) {
4444                     sb.append("ReducedValue(WeekBasedYear,2,2,2000-01-01)");
4445                 } else {
4446                     sb.append("WeekBasedYear,").append(count).append(",")
4447                             .append(19).append(",")
4448                             .append((count < 4) ? SignStyle.NORMAL : SignStyle.EXCEEDS_PAD);
4449                 }
4450             } else {
4451                 switch (chr) {
4452                     case 'c':
4453                     case 'e':
4454                         sb.append("DayOfWeek");
4455                         break;
4456                     case 'w':
4457                         sb.append("WeekOfWeekBasedYear");
4458                         break;
4459                     case 'W':
4460                         sb.append("WeekOfMonth");
4461                         break;
4462                     default:
4463                         break;
4464                 }
4465                 sb.append(",");
4466                 sb.append(count);
4467             }
4468             sb.append(")");
4469             return sb.toString();
4470         }
4471     }
4472 
4473     //-------------------------------------------------------------------------
4474     /**
4475      * Length comparator.
4476      */
4477     static final Comparator<String> LENGTH_SORT = new Comparator<String>() {
4478         @Override
4479         public int compare(String str1, String str2) {
4480             return str1.length() == str2.length() ? str1.compareTo(str2) : str1.length() - str2.length();
4481         }
4482     };
4483 }